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Review

Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet

1
Spanish Society of Precision Health, SENMO/SESAP, 38320 Canary Islands, Spain
2
Integrative Medicine Centre, CEMINT, Technical-Scientific Nucleus, 2800-56 Almada, Portugal
3
Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takuya Chiba
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041302
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
As the incidence of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCDs) increases, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, calorie restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing the benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs. ketosis-inducing diets, including intermittent fasting (IF), classic ketogenic diet (CKD), fasting mimicking diet (FMD), very-low-calorie ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish ketogenic Mediterranean diet (SKMD). Special emphasis on insulin resistance (IR) was placed, as it mediates metabolic syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for CNCD, and is predictive of MS diagnosis. CR is the most robust intervention known to increase lifespan and health span, with high evidence and known biochemical mechanisms. CR improves cardiometabolic risk parameters, boosts exercise insulin sensitivity response, and there may be benefits of implementing moderate CR on healthy young and middle-aged individuals. However, there is insufficient evidence to support long-term CR. CKD is effective for weight and MS management, and may have additional benefits such as prevention of muscle loss and appetite control. SKMD has extreme significance benefits for all the metabolic parameters studied. Studies show inconsistent benefits of IF compared to classic CR. More studies are required to study biochemical parameters, reinforce evidence, identify risks, and seek effective and safe nutritional CR approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; calorie restriction; ketosis; fasting; health span; lifespan; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; chronic non-communicable diseases; low-calorie; low-carb diet; calorie restriction; ketosis; fasting; health span; lifespan; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; chronic non-communicable diseases; low-calorie; low-carb
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MDPI and ACS Style

Napoleão, A.; Fernandes, L.; Miranda, C.; Marum, A.P. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041302

AMA Style

Napoleão A, Fernandes L, Miranda C, Marum AP. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041302

Chicago/Turabian Style

Napoleão, Ana, Lívia Fernandes, Cátia Miranda, and Ana P. Marum 2021. "Effects of Calorie Restriction on Health Span and Insulin Resistance: Classic Calorie Restriction Diet vs. Ketosis-Inducing Diet" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041302

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