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Association of Adherence to the Mediterranean-Style Diet with Lower Frailty Index in Older Adults
Article

Functional Frailty, Dietary Intake, and Risk of Malnutrition. Are Nutrients Involved in Muscle Synthesis the Key for Frailty Prevention?

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GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Agrifood Research and Technology Centre of Aragón -IA2-, CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Exercise and Health in Special Population Spanish Research Net (EXERNET), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Faculty of Health and Sport Science (FCSD), Department of Physiatry and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, Ronda Misericordia 5, 22001 Huesca, Spain
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Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Faculty of Health, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Faculty of Health Sciences, San Jorge University, Villanueva de Gállego, 50830 Zaragoza, Spain
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ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Polytechnic University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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HEME (Health, Economy, Motricity and Education) Research Group, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
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GENUD Toledo Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
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Biomedical Research Networking Center on Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centro Universitario de la Defensa, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emiliana Giacomello and Luana Toniolo
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041231
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Frailty is a reversible condition, which is strongly related to physical function and nutritional status. Different scales are used to screened older adults and their risk of being frail, however, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) may be more adequate than others to measure physical function in exercise interventions and has been less studied. Thus, the main aims of our study were: (1) to describe differences in nutritional intakes by SPPB groups (robust, pre-frail and frail); (2) to study the relationship between being at risk of malnourishment and frailty; and (3) to describe differences in nutrient intake between those at risk of malnourishment and those without risk in the no-frail individuals. One hundred one participants (80.4 ± 6.0 year old) were included in this cross-sectional study. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food intake and Mini Nutritional Assessment to determine malnutrition. Results revealed differences for the intake of carbohydrates, n-3 fatty acids (n3), and saturated fatty acids for frail, pre-frail, and robust individuals and differences in vitamin D intake between frail and robust (all p < 0.05). Those at risk of malnutrition were approximately 8 times more likely to be frail than those with no risk. Significant differences in nutrient intake were found between those at risk of malnourishment and those without risk, specifically in: protein, PUFA n-3, retinol, ascorbic acid, niacin equivalents, folic acid, magnesium, and potassium, respectively. Moreover, differences in alcohol were also observed showing higher intake for those at risk of malnourishment (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, nutrients related to muscle metabolism showed to have different intakes across SPPB physical function groups. The intake of these specific nutrients related with risk of malnourishment need to be promoted in order to prevent frailty. View Full-Text
Keywords: performance; frailty; nutritional status; vitamin D; protein performance; frailty; nutritional status; vitamin D; protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moradell, A.; Fernández-García, Á.I.; Navarrete-Villanueva, D.; Sagarra-Romero, L.; Gesteiro, E.; Pérez-Gómez, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I.; Ara, I.; Casajús, J.A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, G.; Gómez-Cabello, A. Functional Frailty, Dietary Intake, and Risk of Malnutrition. Are Nutrients Involved in Muscle Synthesis the Key for Frailty Prevention? Nutrients 2021, 13, 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041231

AMA Style

Moradell A, Fernández-García ÁI, Navarrete-Villanueva D, Sagarra-Romero L, Gesteiro E, Pérez-Gómez J, Rodríguez-Gómez I, Ara I, Casajús JA, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Gómez-Cabello A. Functional Frailty, Dietary Intake, and Risk of Malnutrition. Are Nutrients Involved in Muscle Synthesis the Key for Frailty Prevention? Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moradell, Ana, Ángel I. Fernández-García, David Navarrete-Villanueva, Lucía Sagarra-Romero, Eva Gesteiro, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Ignacio Ara, Jose A. Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, and Alba Gómez-Cabello. 2021. "Functional Frailty, Dietary Intake, and Risk of Malnutrition. Are Nutrients Involved in Muscle Synthesis the Key for Frailty Prevention?" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041231

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