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Review

Adherence to Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: A Systemic Review of High-Income and Low- and Middle-Income Countries

1
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Center of Excellence in Nutrition and Feeding Difficulties, PENSI Institute, Sabará Children’s Hospital, José Luis Egydio Setúbal Foundation, São Paulo 01228-200, Brazil
3
Department of Nutrition, School of Public University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clare Collins and George Moschon
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031038
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating in Relation to National Dietary Guidelines)
Research comparing the adherence to food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) across countries with different socio-economic status is lacking, which may be a concern for developing nutrition policies. The aim was to report on the adherence to FBDGs in high-income (HIC) and low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC). A systematic review with searches in six databases was performed up to June 2020. English language articles were included if they investigated a population of healthy children and adults (7–65 years), using an observational or experimental design evaluating adherence to national FBDGs. Findings indicate that almost 40% of populations in both HIC and LMIC do not adhere to their national FBDGs. Fruit and vegetables (FV) were most adhered to and the prevalence of adhering FV guidelines was between 7% to 67.3%. HIC have higher consumption of discretionary foods, while results were mixed for LMIC. Grains and dairy were consumed below recommendations in both HIC and LMIC. Consumption of animal proteins (>30%), particularly red meat, exceeded the recommendations. Individuals from HIC and LMIC may be falling short of at least one dietary recommendation from their country’s guidelines. Future health policies, behavioral-change strategies, and dietary guidelines may consider these results in their development. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary guidelines; adherence; diet intake; high-income countries; low- and middle-income countries dietary guidelines; adherence; diet intake; high-income countries; low- and middle-income countries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leme, A.C.B.; Hou, S.; Fisberg, R.M.; Fisberg, M.; Haines, J. Adherence to Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: A Systemic Review of High-Income and Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1038. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031038

AMA Style

Leme ACB, Hou S, Fisberg RM, Fisberg M, Haines J. Adherence to Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: A Systemic Review of High-Income and Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):1038. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leme, Ana Carolina B., Sophia Hou, Regina Mara Fisberg, Mauro Fisberg, and Jess Haines. 2021. "Adherence to Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: A Systemic Review of High-Income and Low- and Middle-Income Countries" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 1038. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031038

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