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Review

The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses

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Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4AX UK & Fuse, The Centre for Translational, Research in Public Health, North East England, UK
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Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Health, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST UK & Fuse, The Centre for Translational, Research in Public Health, North East England, UK
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School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
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School of Health and Life Sciences, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK
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Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST UK & Fuse, The Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, North East England, UK
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Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Health, Northumbria University, UK & Fuse, The Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, North East England, UK
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Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Bloomfield
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031036
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Obesity and Nutrients)
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes. Sixty-five systematic reviews (63 diet and physical activity; 2 smoking) reporting 602 meta-analyses, published since 2011, were identified; no data were identified for alcohol interventions. A wide range of outcomes were reported, including gestational weight gain, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes (GDM) and fetal growth. There was consistent evidence from diet and physical activity interventions for a significantly reduced mean gestational weight gain (ranging from −0.21 kg (95% confidence interval −0.34, −0.08) to −5.77 kg (95% CI −9.34, −2.21). There was evidence from larger diet and physical activity meta-analyses for a significant reduction in postnatal weight retention, caesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hypertension, GDM and preterm delivery, and for smoking interventions to significantly increase birth weight. There was no statistically significant evidence of interventions having an effect on low or high birthweight, neonatal intensive care unit admission, Apgar score or mortality outcomes. Priority areas for future research to capitalise on pregnancy as an opportunity to improve the lifelong wellbeing of women and their children are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematic review; intervention; pregnancy; smoking; alcohol; diet; physical activity systematic review; intervention; pregnancy; smoking; alcohol; diet; physical activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayes, L.; McParlin, C.; Azevedo, L.B.; Jones, D.; Newham, J.; Olajide, J.; McCleman, L.; Heslehurst, N. The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1036. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031036

AMA Style

Hayes L, McParlin C, Azevedo LB, Jones D, Newham J, Olajide J, McCleman L, Heslehurst N. The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):1036. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayes, Louise; McParlin, Catherine; Azevedo, Liane B.; Jones, Dan; Newham, James; Olajide, Joan; McCleman, Louise; Heslehurst, Nicola. 2021. "The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 1036. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031036

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