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Review

Nutritional Components in Western Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet at the Gut Microbiota–Immune System Interplay. Implications for Health and Disease

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Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Department of Surgery, Medical and Social Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcala de Henares, Spain
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Department of General Surgery, Príncipe de Asturias Hospital, 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Ramón y Cajal Institute of Sanitary Research (IRYCIS), 28034 Madrid, Spain
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University Center for the Defense of Madrid (CUD-ACD), 28047 Madrid, Spain
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Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (CIBEREHD), Department of System Biology, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Service of Pediatric, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares,28806 Madrid, Spain
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Psychiatry Service, Center for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network, University Hospital Príncipe de Asturias, 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Immune System Diseases-Rheumatology, Oncology Service an Internal Medicine, University Hospital Príncipe de Asturias, (CIBEREHD), 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
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Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, 28031 Madrid, Spain
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Cancer Registry and Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, 28806 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equality to this work.
These authors shared senior authorship in this work.
Academic Editor: Christoph Reinhardt
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020699
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Microbiota as Modulators of Immunometabolism)
The most prevalent diseases of our time, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer) are rising worldwide. All of them share the condition of an “inflammatory disorder”, with impaired immune functions frequently caused or accompanied by alterations in gut microbiota. These multifactorial maladies also have in common malnutrition related to physiopathology. In this context, diet is the greatest modulator of immune system–microbiota crosstalk, and much interest, and new challenges, are arising in the area of precision nutrition as a way towards treatment and prevention. It is a fact that the westernized diet (WD) is partly responsible for the increased prevalence of NCDs, negatively affecting both gut microbiota and the immune system. Conversely, other nutritional approaches, such as Mediterranean diet (MD), positively influence immune system and gut microbiota, and is proposed not only as a potential tool in the clinical management of different disease conditions, but also for prevention and health promotion globally. Thus, the purpose of this review is to determine the regulatory role of nutritional components of WD and MD in the gut microbiota and immune system interplay, in order to understand, and create awareness of, the influence of diet over both key components. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; host immunometabolism; intestinal barrier; mediterranean diet; western diet; immunomodulation; food matrix; micronutrients; malnutrition gut microbiota; host immunometabolism; intestinal barrier; mediterranean diet; western diet; immunomodulation; food matrix; micronutrients; malnutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Montero, C.; Fraile-Martínez, O.; Gómez-Lahoz, A.M.; Pekarek, L.; Castellanos, A.J.; Noguerales-Fraguas, F.; Coca, S.; Guijarro, L.G.; García-Honduvilla, N.; Asúnsolo, A.; Sanchez-Trujillo, L.; Lahera, G.; Bujan, J.; Monserrat, J.; Álvarez-Mon, M.; Álvarez-Mon, M.A.; Ortega, M.A. Nutritional Components in Western Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet at the Gut Microbiota–Immune System Interplay. Implications for Health and Disease. Nutrients 2021, 13, 699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020699

AMA Style

García-Montero C, Fraile-Martínez O, Gómez-Lahoz AM, Pekarek L, Castellanos AJ, Noguerales-Fraguas F, Coca S, Guijarro LG, García-Honduvilla N, Asúnsolo A, Sanchez-Trujillo L, Lahera G, Bujan J, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M, Álvarez-Mon MA, Ortega MA. Nutritional Components in Western Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet at the Gut Microbiota–Immune System Interplay. Implications for Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020699

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Montero, Cielo, Oscar Fraile-Martínez, Ana M. Gómez-Lahoz, Leonel Pekarek, Alejandro J. Castellanos, Fernando Noguerales-Fraguas, Santiago Coca, Luis G. Guijarro, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Angel Asúnsolo, Lara Sanchez-Trujillo, Guillermo Lahera, Julia Bujan, Jorge Monserrat, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Miguel A. Álvarez-Mon, and Miguel A. Ortega. 2021. "Nutritional Components in Western Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet at the Gut Microbiota–Immune System Interplay. Implications for Health and Disease" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020699

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