Immunological and metabolic processes are inextricably linked and important for maintaining tissue and organismal health. Manipulation of cellular metabolism could be beneficial to immunity and prevent metabolic and degenerative diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Maintenance of a normal metabolism depends on symbiotic consortium of gut microbes. Gut microbiota contributes to certain xenobiotic metabolisms and bioactive metabolites production. Gut microbiota-derived metabolites have been shown to be involved in inflammatory activation of macrophages and contribute to metabolic diseases. Recent studies have focused on how nutrients affect immunometabolism. Polyphenols, the secondary metabolites of plants, are presented in many foods and beverages. Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. Many clinical trials and epidemiological studies have also shown that long-term consumption of polyphenol-rich diet protects against chronic metabolic diseases. It is known that polyphenols can modulate the composition of core gut microbiota and interact with the immunometabolism. In the present article, we review the mechanisms of gut microbiota and its metabolites on immunometabolism, summarize recent findings on how the interaction between microbiota and polyphenol modulates host immunometabolism, and discuss future research directions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited