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Systematic Review

Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density in Men

Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
Department Population-Based Medicine, Institute of Health Science, University Hospital Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Department of Medical and Life Sciences, University of Furtwangen, 78056 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany
Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus, Geriatrie und Geriatrische Rehabilitation, 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
Klinikum Nurnberg, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität, 90419 Nürnberg, Germany
Bernhard Heine Zentrum für Bewegungsforschung, University of Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
Austrian Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ÖGKM), A-1090 Wien, Austria
German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU), 10623 Berlin, Germany
Deutsche Rheuma-Liga Bundesverband e.V., 53111 Bonn, Germany
German Society for Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine (DGMPR), 01067 Dresden, Germany
International Musculoskeletal Pain Society (IGOST), 88212 Ravensburg, Germany
Deutscher Verband für Gesundheitssport und Sporttherapie e. V. (DVGS), 50354 Hürth, Germany
European Geriatric Medicine Society (EuGMS), Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, 90419 Nürnberg, Germany
Deutscher Verband für Physiotherapie (ZVK) e.V., 50679 Cologne, Germany
Osteology Umbrella Association Germany (DVO), 67659 Kaiserslautern, Germany
Institute of Radiology, FAU-Erlangen-Nürnberg and University Hospital Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Research Group on German Guideline “Exercise and Fracture Prevention”.
Academic Editors: Connie Weaver and Maria Luz Fernandez
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4244;
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
In contrast to postmenopausal women, evidence for a favorable effect of exercise on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is still limited for men. This might be due to the paucity of studies, but also to the great variety of participants and study characteristics that may dilute study results. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise on BMD changes with rational eligibility criteria. A comprehensive search of six electronic databases up to 15 March 2021 was conducted. Briefly, controlled trials ≥6 months that determined changes in areal BMD in men >18 years old, with no apparent diseases or pharmacological therapy that relevantly affect bone metabolism, were included. BMD changes (standardized mean differences: SMD) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were considered as outcomes. Twelve studies with 16 exercise and 12 control groups were identified. The pooled estimate of random-effect analysis was SMD = 0.38, 95%-CI: 0.14–0.61 and SMD = 0.25, 95%-CI: 0.00–0.49, for LS and FN, respectively. Heterogeneity between the trials was low–moderate. Funnel plots and rank and regression correlation tests indicate evidence for small study publication bias for LS but not FN-BMD. Subgroup analyses that focus on study length, type of exercise and methodologic quality revealed no significant difference between each of the three categories. In summary, we provided further evidence for a low but significant effect of exercise on BMD in men. However, we are currently unable to give even rough exercise recommendations for male cohorts. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral density; exercise; men; overview bone mineral density; exercise; men; overview
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mages, M.; Shojaa, M.; Kohl, M.; von Stengel, S.; Becker, C.; Gosch, M.; Jakob, F.; Kerschan-Schindl, K.; Kladny, B.; Klöckner, N.; Lange, U.; Middeldorf, S.; Peters, S.; Schoene, D.; Sieber, C.C.; Tholen, R.; Thomasius, F.E.; Uder, M.; Kemmler, W. Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density in Men. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4244.

AMA Style

Mages M, Shojaa M, Kohl M, von Stengel S, Becker C, Gosch M, Jakob F, Kerschan-Schindl K, Kladny B, Klöckner N, Lange U, Middeldorf S, Peters S, Schoene D, Sieber CC, Tholen R, Thomasius FE, Uder M, Kemmler W. Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density in Men. Nutrients. 2021; 13(12):4244.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mages, Michelle, Mahdieh Shojaa, Matthias Kohl, Simon von Stengel, Clemens Becker, Markus Gosch, Franz Jakob, Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Bernd Kladny, Nicole Klöckner, Uwe Lange, Stefan Middeldorf, Stefan Peters, Daniel Schoene, Cornel C. Sieber, Reina Tholen, Friederike E. Thomasius, Michael Uder, and Wolfgang Kemmler. 2021. "Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density in Men" Nutrients 13, no. 12: 4244.

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