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Article

Maternal Diet, Infection, and Risk of Cord Blood Inflammation in the Bangladesh Projahnmo Pregnancy Cohort

1
Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Projahnmo Research Foundation, Banani, Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh
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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Harvard Graduate School of Education, Boston, MA 02138, USA
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Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-François Landrier
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113792
Received: 26 September 2021 / Revised: 15 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Brain Development and Repair)
Inflammation may adversely affect early human brain development. We aimed to assess the role of maternal nutrition and infections on cord blood inflammation. In a pregnancy cohort in Sylhet, Bangladesh, we enrolled 251 consecutive pregnancies resulting in a term livebirth from July 2016–March 2017. Stillbirths, preterm births, and cases of neonatal encephalopathy were excluded. We prospectively collected data on maternal diet (food frequency questionnaire) and morbidity, and analyzed umbilical cord blood for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein. We determined associations between nutrition and infection exposures and cord cytokine elevation (≥75% vs. <75%) using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. One-third of mothers were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) at enrollment. Antenatal and intrapartum infections were observed among 4.8% and 15.9% of the sample, respectively. Low pregnancy intakes of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9 (folate)), fat-soluble vitamins (D, E), iron, zinc, and linoleic acid (lowest vs. middle tertile) were associated with higher risk of inflammation, particularly IL-8. There was a non-significant trend of increased risk of IL-8 and IL-6 elevation with history of ante-and intrapartum infections, respectively. In Bangladesh, improving micronutrient intake and preventing pregnancy infections are targets to reduce fetal systemic inflammation and associated adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: undernutrition; prenatal infection; inflammation; micronutrient undernutrition; prenatal infection; inflammation; micronutrient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, A.C.; Cherkerzian, S.; Olson, I.E.; Ahmed, S.; Chowdhury, N.H.; Khanam, R.; Rahman, S.; Andrews, C.; Baqui, A.H.; Fawzi, W.; Inder, T.E.; Nartey, S.; Nelson, C.A.; Oken, E.; Sen, S.; Fichorova, R. Maternal Diet, Infection, and Risk of Cord Blood Inflammation in the Bangladesh Projahnmo Pregnancy Cohort. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113792

AMA Style

Lee AC, Cherkerzian S, Olson IE, Ahmed S, Chowdhury NH, Khanam R, Rahman S, Andrews C, Baqui AH, Fawzi W, Inder TE, Nartey S, Nelson CA, Oken E, Sen S, Fichorova R. Maternal Diet, Infection, and Risk of Cord Blood Inflammation in the Bangladesh Projahnmo Pregnancy Cohort. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):3792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Anne C., Sara Cherkerzian, Ingrid E. Olson, Salahuddin Ahmed, Nabidul H. Chowdhury, Rasheda Khanam, Sayedur Rahman, Chloe Andrews, Abdullah H. Baqui, Wafaie Fawzi, Terrie E. Inder, Stephanie Nartey, Charles A. Nelson, Emily Oken, Sarbattama Sen, and Raina Fichorova. 2021. "Maternal Diet, Infection, and Risk of Cord Blood Inflammation in the Bangladesh Projahnmo Pregnancy Cohort" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 3792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113792

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