Next Article in Journal
Measuring Skin Carotenoids Using Reflection Spectroscopy in a Low-Income School Setting
Previous Article in Journal
Maternal Diet, Infection, and Risk of Cord Blood Inflammation in the Bangladesh Projahnmo Pregnancy Cohort
Review

Early-Life Respiratory Infections in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy: An Expert Opinion on the Available Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research

1
Translational Research in Pediatric Specialities Area, Division of Allergy, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
2
Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
The Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, 6700 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Dr von Hauner Kinderspital, University Hospital, LMU Klinikum, 80337 Munich, Germany
5
Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
6
Department of Medicine, School of Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland National University of Ireland, T12 K8AF Cork, Ireland
7
Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
8
Allergy Department, 2nd Pediatric Clinic, University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
9
Functional Foods Forum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
10
Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
11
Department of Pediatrics, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital, New York, NY 10016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113795
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Acute respiratory infections are a common cause of morbidity in infants and young children. This high rate of respiratory infections in early life has a major impact on healthcare resources and antibiotic use, with the associated risk of increasing antibiotic resistance, changes in intestinal microbiota composition and activity and, consequently, on the future health of children. An international group of clinicians and researchers working in infant nutrition and cow’s milk allergy (CMA) met to review the available evidence on the prevalence of infections in healthy infants and in those with allergies, particularly CMA; the factors that influence susceptibility to infection in early life; links between infant feeding, CMA and infection risk; and potential strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and infection outcomes. The increased susceptibility of infants with CMA to infections, and the reported potential benefits with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics with regard to improving infection outcomes and reducing antibiotic usage in infants with CMA, makes this a clinically important issue that merits further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: infection; upper respiratory tract infection; infants; cow’s milk allergy; breastfeeding; microbiota; dysbiosis; infant formula; synbiotic infection; upper respiratory tract infection; infants; cow’s milk allergy; breastfeeding; microbiota; dysbiosis; infant formula; synbiotic
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fiocchi, A.; Knol, J.; Koletzko, S.; O’Mahony, L.; Papadopoulos, N.G.; Salminen, S.; Szajewska, H.; Nowak-Węgrzyn, A. Early-Life Respiratory Infections in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy: An Expert Opinion on the Available Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113795

AMA Style

Fiocchi A, Knol J, Koletzko S, O’Mahony L, Papadopoulos NG, Salminen S, Szajewska H, Nowak-Węgrzyn A. Early-Life Respiratory Infections in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy: An Expert Opinion on the Available Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):3795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113795

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fiocchi, Alessandro, Jan Knol, Sibylle Koletzko, Liam O’Mahony, Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos, Seppo Salminen, Hania Szajewska, and Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn. 2021. "Early-Life Respiratory Infections in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy: An Expert Opinion on the Available Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 3795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113795

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop