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Zinc Status Index (ZSI) for Quantification of Zinc Physiological Status
Article

Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Healthy 1–3-Year-Old Children from Three Western European Countries

1
Department of Pediatrics, Juliana Children’s Hospital, Haga Teaching Hospital, 2545 AA The Hague, The Netherlands
2
Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, University of Amsterdam Emma Children’s Hospital, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Nutriton4Health, 1214 LT Hilversum, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Elad Tako
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3713; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113713
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
Zinc deficiency (ZnD) has adverse health consequences such as stunted growth. Since young children have an increased risk of developing ZnD, it is important to determine its prevalence and associated factors in this population. However, only a few studies have reported on ZnD prevalence in young children from Western high-income countries. This study evaluated ZnD prevalence and associated factors, including dietary Zn intake, in healthy 1–3-year-old children from Western European, high-income countries. ZnD was defined as serum Zn concentration <9.9 µmol/L. A total of 278 children were included with a median age of 1.7 years (Q1–Q3: 1.2–2.3). The median Zn concentration was 11.0 µmol/L (Q1–Q3: 9.0–12.2), and ZnD prevalence was 31.3%. No significant differences were observed in the socio-economic characteristics between children with and without ZnD. Dietary Zn intake was not associated with ZnD. ZnD is common in healthy 1–3-year-old children from Western European countries. However, the use of currently available cut-off values defining ZnD in young children has its limitations since these are largely based on reference values in older children. Moreover, these values were not evaluated in relation to health consequences, warranting further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; zinc deficiency; dietary zinc intake; children; Western Europe zinc; zinc deficiency; dietary zinc intake; children; Western Europe
MDPI and ACS Style

Vreugdenhil, M.; Akkermans, M.D.; van der Merwe, L.F.; van Elburg, R.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Brus, F. Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Healthy 1–3-Year-Old Children from Three Western European Countries. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113713

AMA Style

Vreugdenhil M, Akkermans MD, van der Merwe LF, van Elburg RM, van Goudoever JB, Brus F. Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Healthy 1–3-Year-Old Children from Three Western European Countries. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113713

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vreugdenhil, Mirjam, Marjolijn D. Akkermans, Liandré F. van der Merwe, Ruurd M. van Elburg, Johannes B. van Goudoever, and Frank Brus. 2021. "Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Healthy 1–3-Year-Old Children from Three Western European Countries" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 3713. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113713

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