Next Article in Journal
Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Human Standing Balance: A Systematic Review of Placebo-Controlled Trials
Next Article in Special Issue
Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling Is Downregulated in Barrett’s Esophagus Patients Undergoing a Moderate Calorie and Protein Restriction Program: A Randomized 2-Year Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Short-Term Intake of Yellowstripe Scad versus Salmon Did Not Induce Similar Effects on Lipid Profile and Inflammatory Markers among Healthy Overweight Adults despite Their Comparable EPA+DHA Content
Previous Article in Special Issue
Adherence to Dietary Recommendations after One Year of Intervention in Breast Cancer Women: The DIANA-5 Trial
Review

Lifestyle, WCRF/AICR Recommendations, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature

1
Nutritional Support Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua, Italy
2
School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina, 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
3
Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua, Italy
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto 2, 06123 Perugia, Italy
5
CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, 6211 Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose Lara
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103525
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Nutrition and Cancer Prevention)
One of the most notable changes in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer (EC) is the rising incidence and prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in developed countries. The aim of this systematic review was to collect and summarize all the available evidence regarding lifestyle, diet, and EAC risk. We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases in January 2021 for studies providing information about lifestyle, diet, WCRF/AICR recommendations, and EAC risk; published in English; without a time filter. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess risk of bias. The results are stratified by risk factor. A total of 106 publications were included. Half of the case-control studies were judged as high quality, whilst practically all cohort studies were judged as high quality. Body mass index and waist circumference were associated with increased EAC risk. Physical activity did not appear to have a significant direct role in EAC risk. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains appeared to be more protective than a Western diet. Alcohol does not seem to be related to EAC, whereas smokers, particularly heavy smokers, have an increased risk of EAC. Prevention remains the best option to avert EAC. Comprehensible and easy to follow recommendations should be provided to all subjects. Protocol ID number: CRD-42021228762, no funds received. View Full-Text
Keywords: lifestyle; esophageal cancer; cancer prevention; esophageal adenocarcinoma lifestyle; esophageal cancer; cancer prevention; esophageal adenocarcinoma
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Nucci, D.; Marino, A.; Realdon, S.; Nardi, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Gianfredi, V. Lifestyle, WCRF/AICR Recommendations, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103525

AMA Style

Nucci D, Marino A, Realdon S, Nardi M, Fatigoni C, Gianfredi V. Lifestyle, WCRF/AICR Recommendations, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nucci, Daniele, Alessio Marino, Stefano Realdon, Mariateresa Nardi, Cristina Fatigoni, and Vincenza Gianfredi. 2021. "Lifestyle, WCRF/AICR Recommendations, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3525. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103525

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop