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Article

Sensory Perception of an Oral Rehydration Solution during Exercise in the Heat

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School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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School of Health Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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Centre for Metabolic Health Research, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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Human Potential Translational Research Programme, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore S119228, Singapore
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Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, S117593, Singapore
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Global Asia Institute, National University of Singapore, S119076, Singapore
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N.1 Institute for Health, National University of Singapore, S117456, Singapore
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Institute for Digital Medicine, National University of Singapore, S117456, Singapore
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Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), S117609, Singapore
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School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Evan C. Johnson
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103313
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
Prolonged exercise in the heat elicits a number of physiological changes as glycogen stores are low and water and electrolytes are lost through sweat. However, it is unclear whether these changes provoke an increase in liking of saltiness and, therefore, palatability of an oral rehydration solution (ORS). Twenty-seven recreationally active participants (n = 13 males; n = 14 females) completed sensory analysis of an ORS, a traditional sports drink (TS), and a flavored water placebo (PL) at rest and during 60 min (3 × 20-min bouts) of cycling exercise at 70% age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) at 35.3 ± 1.4 °C and 41 ± 6% relative humidity. Before and after every 20 min of exercise, drinks were rated (using 20-mL beverage samples) based on liking of sweetness, liking of saltiness, thirst-quenching ability, and overall liking on a nine-point hedonic scale. Hydration status was assessed by changes in semi-nude body mass, saliva osmolality (SOsm), and saliva total protein concentration (SPC). After 60 min of exercise, participants lost 1.36 ± 0.39% (mean ± SD) of body mass and there were increases in SOsm and SPC. At all time points, liking of sweetness, saltiness, thirst-quenching ability, and overall liking was higher for the TS and PL compared to the ORS (p < 0.05). However, the saltiness liking and thirst-quenching ability of the ORS increased after 60 min of exercise compared to before exercise (p < 0.05). There was also a change in predictors of overall liking with pre-exercise ratings mostly determined by liking of sweetness, saltiness, and thirst-quenching ability (p < 0.001), whereas only liking of saltiness predicted overall liking post-exercise (R2 = 0.751; p < 0.001). There appears to be a hedonic shift during exercise in which the perception of saltiness becomes the most important predictor of overall liking. This finding supports the potential use of an ORS as a valuable means of hydration during the latter stages of prolonged and/or intense exercise in the heat. View Full-Text
Keywords: dehydration; electrolytes; palatability; saltiness; sports drinks; thirst dehydration; electrolytes; palatability; saltiness; sports drinks; thirst
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kitson, O.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.; Foskett, A.; Lee, J.K.W.; Diako, C.; Wong, M.; Ali, A. Sensory Perception of an Oral Rehydration Solution during Exercise in the Heat. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103313

AMA Style

Kitson O, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Foskett A, Lee JKW, Diako C, Wong M, Ali A. Sensory Perception of an Oral Rehydration Solution during Exercise in the Heat. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kitson, Olivia, Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Andrew Foskett, Jason Kai Wei Lee, Charles Diako, Marie Wong, and Ajmol Ali. 2021. "Sensory Perception of an Oral Rehydration Solution during Exercise in the Heat" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103313

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