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Sarcopenia, Diet, Physical Activity and Obesity in European Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The LifeAge Study

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Research Group on Health, Physical Activity, Fitness and Motor Behaviour (GISAFFCOM) and Physical Activity and Sport Sciences Department, Faculty of Sport, Catholic University San Antonio of Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
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Active Aging, Exercise and Health/HEALTHY-AGE Network, Consejo Superior de Deportes (CSD), Ministry of Culture and Sport of Spain, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cádiz, 11519 Cádiz, Spain
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Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences University of Rome “Foro Itálico”, 00135 Roma, Italy
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Health Research Institute (HRI), University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
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Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Art, University of Latvia, 1586 Riga, Latvia
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Business and Services Department, Sport and Leisure, Lapland University of Applied Sciences, 96300 Rovaniemi, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010008
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 17 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity, Aging and Health)
The revised European consensus defined sarcopenia as a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder that is associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, physical disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and analyse the influence of diet, physical activity (PA) and obesity index as risk factors of each criteria of sarcopenia. A total of 629 European middle-aged and older adults were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometrics were assessed. Self-reported PA and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were evaluated with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and Prevention with Mediterranean Diet questionnaire (PREDIMED), respectively. The functional assessment included handgrip strength, lower body muscle strength, gait speed and agility/dynamic balance. Of the participants, 4.84% to 7.33% showed probable sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was confirmed in 1.16% to 2.93% of participants. Severe sarcopenia was shown by 0.86% to 1.49% of participants. Male; age group ≤65 years; lower body mass index (BMI); high levels of vigorous PA; and the consumption of more than one portion per day of red meat, hamburgers, sausages or cold cuts and/or preferential consumption of rabbit, chicken or turkey instead of beef, pork, hamburgers or sausages (OR = 0.126–0.454; all p < 0.013) resulted as protective factors, and more time of sedentary time (OR = 1.608–2.368; p = 0.032–0.041) resulted as a risk factor for some criteria of sarcopenia. In conclusion, age, diet, PA, and obesity can affect the risk of having low muscle strength, low muscle mass or low functional performance, factors connected with sarcopenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary habits; muscle mass; older people; physical condition; sarcopenia; sarcopenia dietary habits; muscle mass; older people; physical condition; sarcopenia; sarcopenia
MDPI and ACS Style

Marcos-Pardo, P.J.; González-Gálvez, N.; López-Vivancos, A.; Espeso-García, A.; Martínez-Aranda, L.M.; Gea-García, G.M.; Orquín-Castrillón, F.J.; Carbonell-Baeza, A.; Jiménez-García, J.D.; Velázquez-Díaz, D.; Cadenas-Sanchez, C.; Isidori, E.; Fossati, C.; Pigozzi, F.; Rum, L.; Norton, C.; Tierney, A.; Äbelkalns, I.; Klempere-Sipjagina, A.; Porozovs, J.; Hannola, H.; Niemisalo, N.; Hokka, L.; Jiménez-Pavón, D.; Vaquero-Cristóbal, R. Sarcopenia, Diet, Physical Activity and Obesity in European Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The LifeAge Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010008

AMA Style

Marcos-Pardo PJ, González-Gálvez N, López-Vivancos A, Espeso-García A, Martínez-Aranda LM, Gea-García GM, Orquín-Castrillón FJ, Carbonell-Baeza A, Jiménez-García JD, Velázquez-Díaz D, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Isidori E, Fossati C, Pigozzi F, Rum L, Norton C, Tierney A, Äbelkalns I, Klempere-Sipjagina A, Porozovs J, Hannola H, Niemisalo N, Hokka L, Jiménez-Pavón D, Vaquero-Cristóbal R. Sarcopenia, Diet, Physical Activity and Obesity in European Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The LifeAge Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):8. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marcos-Pardo, Pablo J.; González-Gálvez, Noelia; López-Vivancos, Abraham; Espeso-García, Alejandro; Martínez-Aranda, Luis M.; Gea-García, Gemma M.; Orquín-Castrillón, Francisco J.; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Jiménez-García, José D.; Velázquez-Díaz, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Isidori, Emanuele; Fossati, Chiara; Pigozzi, Fabio; Rum, Lorenzo; Norton, Catherine; Tierney, Audrey; Äbelkalns, Ilvis; Klempere-Sipjagina, Agita; Porozovs, Juris; Hannola, Heikki; Niemisalo, Niko; Hokka, Leo; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel. 2021. "Sarcopenia, Diet, Physical Activity and Obesity in European Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The LifeAge Study" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010008

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