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Review

Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Human Gut Microbiota

1
Section of Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
UOC of Internal Medicine, Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
PhD School of Applied Medical, Surgical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Margherita 324, 00100 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Gastroenterological, Endocrine-Metabolic and Nephro-Urological Sciences, “Agostino Gemelli” General Hospital Foundation-IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010007
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
Gut microbiota changes correlate with health status. Literature data on gut microbiota show that all dietary changes can induce the alteration of gut microbiota composition. Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a reduction of all-cause mortality and in this review, we analyzed its interactions with human microbiota. In particular, we explored the modulation of the human microbiota, in response to MD adherence, focusing the attention on polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ω-3 and fiber. Evidences suggest that MD is able to modulate the gut microbiota, increasing its diversity. In fact, a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern is associated with specific gut microbiota characteristics. The available evidence, suggests that gut microbiota of subjects that follow a MD is significantly different from subjects that follow a Western diet model. In fact, the latter show an increased gut permeability, which is responsible for metabolic endotoxemia. For this reason, we can speculate that the gut microbiota of the subjects following a MD is able to prevent the onset of chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. However, in order to understand these correlations with dietary patterns, controlled intervention studies on the gut microbiota composition and activity are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; gut microbiota; polyphenols; fiber; ω-3 PUFA Mediterranean diet; gut microbiota; polyphenols; fiber; ω-3 PUFA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Merra, G.; Noce, A.; Marrone, G.; Cintoni, M.; Tarsitano, M.G.; Capacci, A.; De Lorenzo, A. Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Human Gut Microbiota. Nutrients 2021, 13, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010007

AMA Style

Merra G, Noce A, Marrone G, Cintoni M, Tarsitano MG, Capacci A, De Lorenzo A. Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Human Gut Microbiota. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Merra, Giuseppe, Annalisa Noce, Giulia Marrone, Marco Cintoni, Maria Grazia Tarsitano, Annunziata Capacci, and Antonino De Lorenzo. 2021. "Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Human Gut Microbiota" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010007

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