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Managing the Microbiome: How the Gut Influences Development and Disease

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010074
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
The microbiome lies at the forefront of scientific research, as researchers work to uncover its mysterious influence on human development and disease. This paper reviews how the microbiome is studied, how researchers can improve its study, and what clinical applications microbiome research might yield. For this review, we analyzed studies concerning the role of the microbiome in disease and early development, the common methodologies by which the microbiome is researched in the lab, and modern clinical treatments for dysbiosis and their possible future applications. We found that the gut microbiome is essential for proper development of various physiological systems and that gut dysbiosis is a clear factor in the etiology of various diseases. Furthermore, we found that germ-free animal models and microbiome manipulation techniques are inadequate, reducing the efficacy of microbiome research. Nonetheless, research continues to show the significance of microbiome manipulation in the clinical treatment of disease, having shown great promise in the prevention and treatment of dysbiosis. Though the clinical applications of microbiome manipulation are currently limited, the significance of dysbiosis in the etiology of a wide array of diseases indicates the significance of this research and highlights the need for more effective research methods concerning the microbiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; dysbiosis; gavage; fecal transplant; microbiome manipulation; germ free; animal models; cecum microbiota; dysbiosis; gavage; fecal transplant; microbiome manipulation; germ free; animal models; cecum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weinstein, N.; Garten, B.; Vainer, J.; Minaya, D.; Czaja, K. Managing the Microbiome: How the Gut Influences Development and Disease. Nutrients 2021, 13, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010074

AMA Style

Weinstein N, Garten B, Vainer J, Minaya D, Czaja K. Managing the Microbiome: How the Gut Influences Development and Disease. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):74. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weinstein, Noah, Brandon Garten, Jonathan Vainer, Dulce Minaya, and Krzysztof Czaja. 2021. "Managing the Microbiome: How the Gut Influences Development and Disease" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010074

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