The microbiome lies at the forefront of scientific research, as researchers work to uncover its mysterious influence on human development and disease. This paper reviews how the microbiome is studied, how researchers can improve its study, and what clinical applications microbiome research might yield. For this review, we analyzed studies concerning the role of the microbiome in disease and early development, the common methodologies by which the microbiome is researched in the lab, and modern clinical treatments for dysbiosis and their possible future applications. We found that the gut microbiome is essential for proper development of various physiological systems and that gut dysbiosis is a clear factor in the etiology of various diseases. Furthermore, we found that germ-free animal models and microbiome manipulation techniques are inadequate, reducing the efficacy of microbiome research. Nonetheless, research continues to show the significance of microbiome manipulation in the clinical treatment of disease, having shown great promise in the prevention and treatment of dysbiosis. Though the clinical applications of microbiome manipulation are currently limited, the significance of dysbiosis in the etiology of a wide array of diseases indicates the significance of this research and highlights the need for more effective research methods concerning the microbiome.
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