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Open AccessArticle

Physical Activity and Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet: Main and Modification Effects on NAFLD Score. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

1
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “S. de Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte (Ba), Via Turi 27, 70013 Castellana Grotte, Italy
2
Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “S. de Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte (Ba), Via Turi 27, 70013 Castellana Grotte, Italy
3
Department of Gastroenterology, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “S. de Bellis” Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte (Ba), Via Turi 27, 70013 Castellana Grotte, Italy
4
Human Nutrition Research Center (CenINH), School of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enrique Barros Pabellón Biología Celular, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba X5000, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010066
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Exercise and Human Health)
Background: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, and lifestyle modification is the current standard treatment. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of two different physical activity (PA) programs, a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD), and their combined effect on the NAFLD score as measured by FibroScan®. Methods: Moderate or severe NAFLD subjects (n = 144) were randomly assigned to six intervention arms during three months. Interventions arms were a control diet, LGIMD, aerobic activity program (PA1), combined activity program (PA2), and LGIMD plus PA1 or LGIMD plus PA2. The data were compared at baseline, at 45 days, and at 90 days. Analysis of variance was performed under the intention-to-treat principle. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the NAFLD score after 45 days of treatment in every working arm except for Arm 1 (control diet). After 90 days, the best results were shown by the intervention arms in which LGIMD was associated with PA: LGIMD plus PA1 (−61.56 95% CI −89.61, −33.50) and LGIMD plus PA2 (−38.15 95% CI −64.53, −11.77). Conclusion: All treatments were effective to reduce NAFLD scores, but LGIMD plus PA1 was the most efficient. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; diet; controlled attenuation parameter (CAP); aerobic exercise; combined exercise physical activity; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; diet; controlled attenuation parameter (CAP); aerobic exercise; combined exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franco, I.; Bianco, A.; Mirizzi, A.; Campanella, A.; Bonfiglio, C.; Sorino, P.; Notarnicola, M.; Tutino, V.; Cozzolongo, R.; Giannuzzi, V.; Aballay, L.R.; Buongiorno, C.; Bruno, I.; Osella, A.R. Physical Activity and Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet: Main and Modification Effects on NAFLD Score. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010066

AMA Style

Franco I, Bianco A, Mirizzi A, Campanella A, Bonfiglio C, Sorino P, Notarnicola M, Tutino V, Cozzolongo R, Giannuzzi V, Aballay LR, Buongiorno C, Bruno I, Osella AR. Physical Activity and Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet: Main and Modification Effects on NAFLD Score. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):66. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franco, Isabella; Bianco, Antonella; Mirizzi, Antonella; Campanella, Angelo; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Sorino, Paolo; Notarnicola, Maria; Tutino, Valeria; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; Aballay, Laura R.; Buongiorno, Claudia; Bruno, Irene; Osella, Alberto R. 2021. "Physical Activity and Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet: Main and Modification Effects on NAFLD Score. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010066

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