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Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health
Review

Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability

1
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
The Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI), Glen Osmond 5064, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010273
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenol-Rich Foods for Human Health)
Polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals with potential health-promoting effects. They are classified as flavonoid (flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, and anthocyanins) and non-flavonoid molecules (phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, lignans, stilbenes, and tannins). Although an increasing number of trials have shown a correlation among polyphenol consumption and a reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases, discrepancies in explaining their positive effects have been found in terms of the bioavailability. In fact, polyphenols show a low bioavailability due to several factors: interaction with the food matrix, the metabolic processes mediated by the liver (phase I and II metabolism), intestine and microbiota. On the other hand, the biological activities of phenol compounds may be mediated by their metabolites, which are produced in vivo, and recent studies have confirmed that these molecules may have antioxidant and anti-phlogistic properties. This review discusses the studies performed in vivo, which consider the polyphenol bioavailability and their different food sources. Factors influencing the biological effects of the main classes of polyphenols are also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; bioavailability; beneficial effects; human studies polyphenols; bioavailability; beneficial effects; human studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Lorenzo, C.; Colombo, F.; Biella, S.; Stockley, C.; Restani, P. Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability. Nutrients 2021, 13, 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010273

AMA Style

Di Lorenzo C, Colombo F, Biella S, Stockley C, Restani P. Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Lorenzo, Chiara, Francesca Colombo, Simone Biella, Creina Stockley, and Patrizia Restani. 2021. "Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010273

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