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Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study
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Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Longitudinal Studies

1
School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
2
German Diabetes Center, Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
3
Institute of Public Health, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
4
Institute of Gerontological Health Services and Nursing Research, Ravensburg-Weingarten University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010272
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 17 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Globally, increasing rates of obesity are one of the most important health issues. The association between breakfast skipping and body weight is contradictory between cross-sectional and interventional studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize this association based on observational longitudinal studies. We included prospective studies on breakfast skipping and overweight/obesity or weight change in adults. The literature was searched until September 2020 in PubMed and Web of Science. Summary risk ratios (RRs) or β coefficients with a 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively, were estimated in pairwise meta-analyses by applying a random-effects model. In total, nine studies were included in the systematic review and three of them were included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analyses indicated an 11% increased RR for overweight/obesity when breakfast was skipped on ≥3 days per week compared to ≤2 days per week (95% CI: 1.04, 1.19, n = two studies). The meta-analysis on body mass index (BMI) change displayed no difference between breakfast skipping and eating (β = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.05, 0.01; n = two studies). This study provides minimal evidence that breakfast skipping might lead to weight gain and the onset of overweight and obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast skipping; overweight; obesity; weight gain; Body Mass Index (BMI) change; systematic review; meta-analysis; observational longitudinal studies breakfast skipping; overweight; obesity; weight gain; Body Mass Index (BMI) change; systematic review; meta-analysis; observational longitudinal studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wicherski, J.; Schlesinger, S.; Fischer, F. Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Longitudinal Studies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010272

AMA Style

Wicherski J, Schlesinger S, Fischer F. Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Longitudinal Studies. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wicherski, Julia; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Fischer, Florian. 2021. "Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Longitudinal Studies" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010272

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