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Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study

1
Health and Counseling Center, Osaka University, 1-17 Machikaneyamacho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
2
Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2-D11 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3
Health Promotion and Regulation, Department of Health Promotion Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-17 Machikaneyamacho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010271
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Although multiple studies have identified skipping breakfast as a risk factor for weight gain, there is limited evidence on the clinical impact of skipping lunch and dinner on weight gain. This retrospective cohort study including 17,573 male and 8860 female university students at a national university in Japan, assessed the association of the frequency of breakfast, lunch, and dinner with the incidence of weight gain (≥10%) and overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2), using annual participant health checkup data. Within the observation period of 3.0 ± 0.9 years, the incidence of ≥10% weight gain was observed in 1896 (10.8%) men and 1518 (17.1%) women, respectively. Skipping dinner was identified as a significant predictor of weight gain in multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models for both men and women (skipping ≥ occasionally vs. eating every day, adjusted incidence rate ratios, 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.98) and 1.67 (1.33–2.09) in male and female students, respectively), whereas skipping breakfast and lunch were not. Similarly, skipping dinner, not breakfast or lunch, was associated with overweight/obesity (1.74 (1.07–2.84) and 1.68 (1.02–2.78) in men and women, respectively). In conclusion, skipping dinner predicted the incidence of weight gain and overweight/obesity in university students. View Full-Text
Keywords: meal frequency; breakfast skipping; lunch skipping; dinner skipping; weight gain; overweight/obesity; retrospective cohort study meal frequency; breakfast skipping; lunch skipping; dinner skipping; weight gain; overweight/obesity; retrospective cohort study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamamoto, R.; Tomi, R.; Shinzawa, M.; Yoshimura, R.; Ozaki, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Ide, S.; Nagatomo, I.; Nishida, M.; Yamauchi-Takihara, K.; Kudo, T.; Moriyama, T. Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010271

AMA Style

Yamamoto R, Tomi R, Shinzawa M, Yoshimura R, Ozaki S, Nakanishi K, Ide S, Nagatomo I, Nishida M, Yamauchi-Takihara K, Kudo T, Moriyama T. Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010271

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamamoto, Ryohei; Tomi, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Yoshimura, Ryuichi; Ozaki, Shingo; Nakanishi, Kaori; Ide, Seiko; Nagatomo, Izumi; Nishida, Makoto; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko; Kudo, Takashi; Moriyama, Toshiki. 2021. "Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010271

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