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Article

Dietary Intake of trans Fatty Acids in the Slovenian Population

1
Nutrition Institute, Tržaška cesta 40, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jožef Stefan Institute, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
National Institute of Public Health, Trubarjeva 2, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
VIST–Higher School of Applied Sciences, Gerbičeva cesta 51A, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010207
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue European Dietary Surveys: What's on the Menu?)
Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) has been unequivocally linked to several adverse health effects, with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease being one of the most well understood. To reduce TFA-related morbidity and mortality, several countries have imposed voluntary or mandatory measures to minimize the content of industrial TFAs (iTFAs) in the food supply. In 2018, Slovenia introduced a ban on iTFAs on top of preceding voluntary calls to industry to reduce its use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) as the main source of iTFAs. To investigate the consumption of TFAs, data available from the nationally representative dietary survey SI.Menu were analyzed. The survey consisted of two 24-h non-consecutive day recalls from 1248 study participants from three age groups (10–17, 18–64, 65–74 years old), combined with socio-demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle parameters. The analyses demonstrated that, on average, TFAs accounted for 0.38–0.50% of total energy intake (TEI). However, 13% of adolescents, 29.4% of adults, and 41.8% of the elderly population still consumed more than 0.50% TEI with TFAs. The main sources of TFAs in the diet were naturally present TFAs from butter, meat dishes, and meat products, regardless of the age group. Results indicate that following the reformulation activities, the major sources of TFAs in the diets of the Slovenian population now represent foods which are natural sources of TFAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: trans fatty acids; partially hydrogenated oils; dietary intake; 24-h recall; EU Menu; Slovenian population trans fatty acids; partially hydrogenated oils; dietary intake; 24-h recall; EU Menu; Slovenian population
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zupanič, N.; Hribar, M.; Hristov, H.; Lavriša, Ž.; Kušar, A.; Gregorič, M.; Blaznik, U.; Koroušić Seljak, B.; Golja, P.; Vidrih, R.; Žmitek, K.; Pravst, I. Dietary Intake of trans Fatty Acids in the Slovenian Population. Nutrients 2021, 13, 207. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010207

AMA Style

Zupanič N, Hribar M, Hristov H, Lavriša Ž, Kušar A, Gregorič M, Blaznik U, Koroušić Seljak B, Golja P, Vidrih R, Žmitek K, Pravst I. Dietary Intake of trans Fatty Acids in the Slovenian Population. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):207. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010207

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zupanič, Nina, Maša Hribar, Hristo Hristov, Živa Lavriša, Anita Kušar, Matej Gregorič, Urška Blaznik, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Petra Golja, Rajko Vidrih, Katja Žmitek, and Igor Pravst. 2021. "Dietary Intake of trans Fatty Acids in the Slovenian Population" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 207. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010207

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