Recently, nutraceutical bioactive compounds in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefits regarding the prevention of chronic disorders, such as cancer, and inflammatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs), including alpha-linolenic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, are mostly attractive. They are available for the customers worldwide from commonly used foods and/or as components of commercial food supplements. The anti-inflammatory and hypotriglyceridemic effects of these fatty acids are well known, whereas pro-inflammatory properties have been recognized in their dietary counterparts, the ω-6PUFAs. Both ω-3 and ω-6PUFAs contribute to the production of lipid mediators such as endocannabinoids that are notably involved in control of food intake, energy sensing, and food–related disorders. In this review, we present ω-3 and ω-6PUFAs and their derivatives, endocannabinoids; discuss the anti-obesity effects of ω-3PUFAs; their roles in inflammation and colorectal cancer development; and how their action can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic.
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