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Open AccessArticle

A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly

1
Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
2
Exerkine Corporation, McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
3
Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082391
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 1 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown. In this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial, we examined the effects of HBRE/MIS on muscle mass, strength, and function in free-living, older men. Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement (‘Muscle5’; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; −9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; resistance exercise; multi-ingredient supplement; whey; creatine; omega-3; vitamin D; randomized clinical trial; COVID-19 sarcopenia; resistance exercise; multi-ingredient supplement; whey; creatine; omega-3; vitamin D; randomized clinical trial; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nilsson, M.I.; Mikhail, A.; Lan, L.; Di Carlo, A.; Hamilton, B.; Barnard, K.; Hettinga, B.P.; Hatcher, E.; Tarnopolsky, M.G.; Nederveen, J.P.; Bujak, A.L.; May, L.; Tarnopolsky, M.A. A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2391.

AMA Style

Nilsson MI, Mikhail A, Lan L, Di Carlo A, Hamilton B, Barnard K, Hettinga BP, Hatcher E, Tarnopolsky MG, Nederveen JP, Bujak AL, May L, Tarnopolsky MA. A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2391.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nilsson, Mats I.; Mikhail, Andrew; Lan, Lucy; Di Carlo, Alessia; Hamilton, Bethanie; Barnard, Kristin; Hettinga, Bart P.; Hatcher, Erin; Tarnopolsky, Milla G.; Nederveen, Joshua P.; Bujak, Adam L.; May, Linda; Tarnopolsky, Mark A. 2020. "A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2391.

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