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Article

Gestational Weight Gain—Re-Examining the Current Paradigm

1
The Robinson Research Institute and Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia
2
Women’s and Babies Division, Department of Perinatal Medicine, The Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082314
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Our aim was to investigate the underlying assumptions of the current gestational weight gain (GWG) paradigm, specifically that—(1) GWG is modifiable through diet and physical activity; (2) optimal GWG and risk of excess GWG, vary by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category and (3) the association between GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes is causal. Using data from three large, harmonized randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to limit GWG and improve pregnancy outcomes and with appropriate regression models, we investigated the link between diet and physical activity and GWG; the relationships between pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and birth weight z-score; and the evidence for a causal relationship between GWG and pregnancy outcomes. We found little evidence that diet and physical activity in pregnancy affected GWG and that the observed relationships between GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes are causal in nature. Further, while there is evidence that optimal GWG may be lower for women with higher BMI, target ranges defined by BMI categories do not accurately reflect risk of adverse outcomes. Our findings cast doubt upon current advice regarding GWG, particularly for overweight and obese women and suggest that a change in focus is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational weight gain; pregnancy dietary and lifestyle intervention; obesity; causal gestational weight gain; pregnancy dietary and lifestyle intervention; obesity; causal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Louise, J.; Deussen, A.R.; Dodd, J.M. Gestational Weight Gain—Re-Examining the Current Paradigm. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082314

AMA Style

Louise J, Deussen AR, Dodd JM. Gestational Weight Gain—Re-Examining the Current Paradigm. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Louise, Jennie; Deussen, Andrea R.; Dodd, Jodie M. 2020. "Gestational Weight Gain—Re-Examining the Current Paradigm" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082314

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