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Open AccessArticle

Euglena Gracilis and β-Glucan Paramylon Induce Ca2+ Signaling in Intestinal Tract Epithelial, Immune, and Neural Cells

1
Euglena Co., Ltd., Tokyo 108-0014, Japan
2
Department of Immunology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082293
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beta-Glucan in Foods and Health Benefits)
The intestinal tract contains over half of all immune cells and peripheral nerves and manages the beneficial interactions between food compounds and the host. Paramylon is a β-1,3-glucan storage polysaccharide from Euglena gracilis (Euglena) that exerts immunostimulatory activities by affecting cytokine production. This study investigated the signaling mechanisms that regulate the beneficial interactions between food compounds and the intestinal tract using cell type-specific calcium (Ca2+) imaging in vivo and in vitro. We successfully visualized Euglena- and paramylon-mediated Ca2+ signaling in vivo in intestinal epithelial cells from mice ubiquitously expressing the Yellow Cameleon 3.60 (YC3.60) Ca2+ biosensor. Moreover, in vivo Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the intraperitoneal injection of both Euglena and paramylon stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) in Peyer’s patches, indicating that paramylon is an active component of Euglena that affects the immune system. In addition, in vitro Ca2+ imaging in dorsal root ganglia indicated that Euglena, but not paramylon, triggers Ca2+ signaling in the sensory nervous system innervating the intestine. Thus, this study is the first to successfully visualize the direct effect of β-1,3-glucan on DCs in vivo and will help elucidate the mechanisms via which Euglena and paramylon exert various effects in the intestinal tract. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-1,3-glucan; Euglena gracilis; Ca2+ signaling; intestinal epithelial cell; intravital imaging; small intestine; immune system β-1,3-glucan; Euglena gracilis; Ca2+ signaling; intestinal epithelial cell; intravital imaging; small intestine; immune system
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Yasuda, K.; Nakashima, A.; Murata, A.; Suzuki, K.; Adachi, T. Euglena Gracilis and β-Glucan Paramylon Induce Ca2+ Signaling in Intestinal Tract Epithelial, Immune, and Neural Cells. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2293.

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