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Nutrition Transition and Cancer
Open AccessArticle

Co-consumption of Vegetables and Fruit, Whole Grains, and Fiber Reduces the Cancer Risk of Red and Processed Meat in a Large Prospective Cohort of Adults from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project

1
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
2
Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, Cancer Research & Analytics, CancerControl Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB T2T 5C7, Canada
3
Health Sciences Department, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi 144534, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082265
Received: 28 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer: From Prevention to Survivorship)
We examined whether co-consumption of red and processed meat with key foods items and food constituents recommended for cancer prevention (vegetables and fruit, whole grains, and fiber) mitigates cancer incidence. In a prospective cohort of 26,218 adults aged 35–69 years at baseline, dietary intake was collected through 124-item past-year food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of all-cause and 15 cancers previously linked to red and processed meat intake was obtained through data linkage with a cancer registry (average follow-up 13.5 years). Competing risk Cox Proportional Hazard models estimated cancer risk and Accelerated Failure Time models estimated time-to-cancer occurrence for different combinations of intake levels while considering mortality from vital statistics and established confounders. Co-consumption of low vegetables and fruit intake with high processed meat was associated with higher incidence of all-cause and 15 cancers (men: HR = 1.85, 1.91; women: HR = 1.44, 1.49) and accelerated time-to-cancer occurrence (men: 6.5 and 7.1 years and women: 5.6 and 6.3 years, respectively), compared to high vegetables and fruit with low processed meat intake. Less pronounced and less consistent associations were observed for whole grains and fiber and for red meat. The findings provide initial evidence toward refining existing cancer prevention recommendations to optimize the intake and combination of foods in the general adult population. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer prevention; red meat; processed meat; vegetables and fruit; whole grains; fiber; healthy eating cancer prevention; red meat; processed meat; vegetables and fruit; whole grains; fiber; healthy eating
MDPI and ACS Style

Maximova, K.; Khodayari Moez, E.; Dabravolskaj, J.; Ferdinands, A.R.; Dinu, I.; Lo Siou, G.; Al Rajabi, A.; Veugelers, P.J. Co-consumption of Vegetables and Fruit, Whole Grains, and Fiber Reduces the Cancer Risk of Red and Processed Meat in a Large Prospective Cohort of Adults from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2265. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082265

AMA Style

Maximova K, Khodayari Moez E, Dabravolskaj J, Ferdinands AR, Dinu I, Lo Siou G, Al Rajabi A, Veugelers PJ. Co-consumption of Vegetables and Fruit, Whole Grains, and Fiber Reduces the Cancer Risk of Red and Processed Meat in a Large Prospective Cohort of Adults from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2265. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maximova, Katerina; Khodayari Moez, Elham; Dabravolskaj, Julia; Ferdinands, Alexa R.; Dinu, Irina; Lo Siou, Geraldine; Al Rajabi, Ala; Veugelers, Paul J. 2020. "Co-consumption of Vegetables and Fruit, Whole Grains, and Fiber Reduces the Cancer Risk of Red and Processed Meat in a Large Prospective Cohort of Adults from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2265. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082265

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