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Effects of Short-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Blood Amino Acid Levels in Young Men

1
Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Industriepark Hoechst, 65926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
4
Nutrient Metabolism & Signalling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Metabolism, Diabetes and Obesity Program, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082195
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
Pre-clinical studies show that dietary protein restriction (DPR) improves healthspan and retards many age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. While mouse studies have shown that restriction of certain essential amino acids is required for this response, less is known about which amino acids are affected by DPR in humans. Here, using a within-subjects diet design, we examined the effects of dietary protein restriction in the fasted state, as well as acutely after meal feeding, on blood plasma amino acid levels. While very few amino acids were affected by DPR in the fasted state, several proteinogenic AAs such as isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine were lower in the meal-fed state with DPR. In addition, the non-proteinogenic AAs such as 1- and 3-methyl-histidine were also lower with meal feeding during DPR. Lastly, using in silico predictions of the most limiting essential AAs compared with human exome AA usage, we demonstrate that leucine, methionine, and threonine are potentially the most limiting essential AAs with DPR. In summary, acute meal feeding allows more accurate determination of which AAs are affected by dietary interventions, with most essential AAs lowered by DPR. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; dietary protein; meal feeding; fasting; restriction amino acids; dietary protein; meal feeding; fasting; restriction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sjøberg, K.A.; Schmoll, D.; Piper, M.D.W.; Kiens, B.; Rose, A.J. Effects of Short-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Blood Amino Acid Levels in Young Men. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082195

AMA Style

Sjøberg KA, Schmoll D, Piper MDW, Kiens B, Rose AJ. Effects of Short-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Blood Amino Acid Levels in Young Men. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sjøberg, Kim A., Dieter Schmoll, Matthew D.W. Piper, Bente Kiens, and Adam J. Rose 2020. "Effects of Short-Term Dietary Protein Restriction on Blood Amino Acid Levels in Young Men" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082195

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