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Open AccessArticle

Biomarkers of Browning in Cold Exposed Siberian Adults

1
Yakut Scientific Center of Complex Medical Problems, 677010 Yakutsk, Russia
2
Center for the Study of Obesity, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Marche Polytechnic University, Via Tronto 10A, 60020 Ancona, Italy
3
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Via Ravasi 2, 21100 Varese, Italy
4
Center of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Medical Information Technology, Marche Polytechnic University, Via Tronto 10A, 60020 Ancona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082162
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 22 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Influence on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Blood Lipid Levels)
Cold-exposure promotes energy expenditure by inducing brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, which over time, is also sustained by browning, the appearance, or increase, of brown-like cells into white fat depots. Identification of circulating markers reflecting BAT activity and browning is crucial to study this phenomenon and its triggers, also holding possible implications for the therapy of obesity and metabolic diseases. Using RT-qPCR, we evaluated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expression profile of regulators of BAT activity (CIDEA, PRDM16), white adipocytes browning (HOXC9 and SLC27A1), and fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1A) in 150 Siberian healthy miners living at extremely cold temperatures compared to 29 healthy subjects living in thermoneutral conditions. Anthropometric parameters, glucose, and lipid profiles were also assessed. The cold-exposed group showed significantly lower weight, BMI, hip circumference, and PBMC expression of CIDEA, but higher expression of HOXC9 and higher circulating glucose compared to controls. Within the cold-exposed group, BMI, total cholesterol, and the atherogenic coefficient were lower in individuals exposed to low temperatures for a longer time. In conclusion, human PBMC expresses the brown adipocytes marker CIDEA and the browning marker HOXC9, which, varying according to cold-exposure, possibly reflect changes in BAT activation and white fat browning. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermogenesis; browning; brown adipose tissue; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; cold-exposure; biomarkers thermogenesis; browning; brown adipose tissue; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; cold-exposure; biomarkers
MDPI and ACS Style

Efremova, A.; Colleluori, G.; Thomsky, M.; Perugini, J.; Protasoni, M.; Reguzzoni, M.; Faragalli, A.; Carle, F.; Giordano, A.; Cinti, S. Biomarkers of Browning in Cold Exposed Siberian Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2162. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082162

AMA Style

Efremova A, Colleluori G, Thomsky M, Perugini J, Protasoni M, Reguzzoni M, Faragalli A, Carle F, Giordano A, Cinti S. Biomarkers of Browning in Cold Exposed Siberian Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2162. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082162

Chicago/Turabian Style

Efremova, Agrafena; Colleluori, Georgia; Thomsky, Mikhail; Perugini, Jessica; Protasoni, Marina; Reguzzoni, Marcella; Faragalli, Andrea; Carle, Flavia; Giordano, Antonio; Cinti, Saverio. 2020. "Biomarkers of Browning in Cold Exposed Siberian Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2162. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082162

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