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Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

by 1,†, 2,3,† and 2,3,*
1
Clinical Trial Center, Hallym University Hospital, Anyang 14066, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
3
Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this study.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072005
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of a ketogenic diet in metabolic control in patients with overweight or obesity and with or without type 2 diabetes. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with overweight or obesity on a ketogenic diet for metabolic control. Fourteen studies were included in meta-analysis. The effects of ketogenic diets on glycemic control were greater for diabetic patients relative to those of low-fat diets, indicated by lower glycated hemoglobin (SMD, −0.62; p < 0.001) and homeostatic model assessment index (SMD, −0.29; p = 0.02), while comparable effects were observed for nondiabetic patients. Ketogenic diets led to substantial weight reduction (SMD, −0.46; p = 0.04) irrespective of patients’ diabetes status at baseline and improved lipid profiles in terms of lower triglyceride (SMD, −0.45; p = 0.01) and greater high-density lipoprotein (SMD, 0.31; p = 0.005) for diabetic patients. Other risk markers showed no substantial between-group difference post intervention. Our study findings confirmed that ketogenic diets were more effective in improving metabolic parameters associated with glycemic, weight, and lipid controls in patients with overweight or obesity, especially those with preexisting diabetes, as compared to low-fat diets. This effect may contribute to improvements in metabolic dysfunction-related morbidity and mortality in these patient populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; glycemic control; obesity; type 2 diabetes ketogenic diet; glycemic control; obesity; type 2 diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.J.; Jeon, S.-M.; Shin, S. Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2005. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072005

AMA Style

Choi YJ, Jeon S-M, Shin S. Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020; 12(7):2005. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Yeo J., Sang-Min Jeon, and Sooyoung Shin. 2020. "Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials" Nutrients 12, no. 7: 2005. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072005

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