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Open AccessArticle

Electrolyte Intake and Major Food Sources of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium among a Population in Western Austria

1
Department of Health Care and Nursing, FH Gesundheit, Health University of Applied Sciences Tyrol, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Dietetics, FH Gesundheit, Health University of Applied Sciences Tyrol, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071956
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium has a strong impact on personal health. In order to understand possible correlations with regional occurrence of diseases and to develop new dietary strategies, it is necessary to evaluate food choices in defined geographic areas. The aim of this study was to analyze daily consumption and major food sources of electrolytes with an emphasis on dietary patterns. In this representative, cross-sectional study, daily foods of 463 adults were assessed with two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Our results show high sodium and low potassium consumption in all age groups in both men and women. Furthermore, more than half of investigated persons had low calcium, and 40% indicated low dietary magnesium intake. Only 1% of our study population reached the recommended values for all electrolytes, while 13% consumed adequate levels of three electrolytes. Moreover, 14% did not reach reference levels for any of the four minerals. A further comparison of dietary patterns and food preferences showed significant differences in major food groups including nonalcoholic drinks, fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk products, vegetable oil, bread and sweets. Our results are important for further evaluations of nutrition intake and the development of new dietary strategies.
Keywords: electrolytes; minerals; dietary intake; food sources; dietary patterns electrolytes; minerals; dietary intake; food sources; dietary patterns
MDPI and ACS Style

Schiefermeier-Mach, N.; Egg, S.; Erler, J.; Hasenegger, V.; Rust, P.; König, J.; Purtscher, A.E. Electrolyte Intake and Major Food Sources of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium among a Population in Western Austria. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1956.

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