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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Follow a Healthy Diet on Life Satisfaction of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

1
Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), 14004 Córdoba, Spain
2
Department of Psychology, University of Cordoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
3
Department of Psychology, University of Seville, 41018 Seville, Spain
4
Department of Didactics of Experimental Sciences, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
5
Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
6
Department of Medicine (Medicine, Dermatology and Otorhinolaryngology), University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
7
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28007 Madrid, Spain
8
Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071903
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Topics in Public Health Nutrition)
Today, cardiovascular disease has a great impact on the global population due to its high prevalence. One challenge that cardiovascular patients face to achieve a better prognosis is to follow a healthy diet. This study focused on psychological factors linked to adaptation to a healthy diet in these patients. The main objective was to analyze the interrelationship between motivation to follow a healthy diet and self-efficacy to adhere to the Mediterranean diet with life satisfaction over time. The sample consisted of cardiovascular patients who were assessed at three measurement moments (NT1 = 755; NT2 = 593; NT3 = 323, average interval time: nine months). Correlation analyses showed that self-efficacy, motivation, and life satisfaction followed a pattern of positive relations across the three measurements. A time effect over the study variables was also observed. The results of path analyses showed that self-efficacy positively predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn was associated with patients’ life satisfaction. This interrelation was stable over a period of 18 months. Moreover, life satisfaction predicted self-efficacy nine months later. Psychological interventions might be a positive resource for cardiovascular patients, since psychological variables influence their life satisfaction and their subsequent quality of life in their new health condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy diet; cardiovascular disease; self-efficacy; motivation; life satisfaction healthy diet; cardiovascular disease; self-efficacy; motivation; life satisfaction
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Castillo-Mayén, R.; Cano-Espejo, C.; Luque, B.; Cuadrado, E.; Gutiérrez-Domingo, T.; Arenas, A.; Rubio, S.J.; Delgado-Lista, J.; Pérez-Martínez, P.; Tabernero, C. Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Follow a Healthy Diet on Life Satisfaction of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1903.

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