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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Follow a Healthy Diet on Life Satisfaction of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Department of Psychology, University of Cordoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Department of Psychology, University of Seville, 41018 Seville, Spain
Department of Didactics of Experimental Sciences, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Department of Medicine (Medicine, Dermatology and Otorhinolaryngology), University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28007 Madrid, Spain
Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1903;
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Topics in Public Health Nutrition)
Today, cardiovascular disease has a great impact on the global population due to its high prevalence. One challenge that cardiovascular patients face to achieve a better prognosis is to follow a healthy diet. This study focused on psychological factors linked to adaptation to a healthy diet in these patients. The main objective was to analyze the interrelationship between motivation to follow a healthy diet and self-efficacy to adhere to the Mediterranean diet with life satisfaction over time. The sample consisted of cardiovascular patients who were assessed at three measurement moments (NT1 = 755; NT2 = 593; NT3 = 323, average interval time: nine months). Correlation analyses showed that self-efficacy, motivation, and life satisfaction followed a pattern of positive relations across the three measurements. A time effect over the study variables was also observed. The results of path analyses showed that self-efficacy positively predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn was associated with patients’ life satisfaction. This interrelation was stable over a period of 18 months. Moreover, life satisfaction predicted self-efficacy nine months later. Psychological interventions might be a positive resource for cardiovascular patients, since psychological variables influence their life satisfaction and their subsequent quality of life in their new health condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthy diet; cardiovascular disease; self-efficacy; motivation; life satisfaction healthy diet; cardiovascular disease; self-efficacy; motivation; life satisfaction
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Castillo-Mayén, R.; Cano-Espejo, C.; Luque, B.; Cuadrado, E.; Gutiérrez-Domingo, T.; Arenas, A.; Rubio, S.J.; Delgado-Lista, J.; Pérez-Martínez, P.; Tabernero, C. Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Follow a Healthy Diet on Life Satisfaction of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1903.

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