Next Article in Journal
Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Rich Extract from the Microalga Nannochloropsis Decreases Cholesterol in Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Three-Month Supplementation Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Follow a Healthy Diet on Life Satisfaction of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study
Previous Article in Journal
Participants’ Experiences of the 2018–2019 Government Shutdown and Subsequent Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Benefit Disruption Can Inform Future Policy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Human Papillomavirus Infection: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in Italy
Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D Serum Levels in the UK Population, including a Mathematical Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Vitamin D Fortified Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereals: Application of the NDNS Database

1
StatistiCal BV, Strandwal 148, 2241 MN Wassenaar, The Netherlands
2
Kellogg’s Europe, Orange Tower, Media City UK, Salford, Manchester M50 2HF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061868
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Topics in Public Health Nutrition)
Vitamin D status is relatively poor in the general population, potentially leading to various conditions. The present study evaluates the relationship between vitamin D status and intake in the UK population and the impact of vitamin D fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) on this status via data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS: 2008–2012). Four cohorts were addressed: ages 4–10 (n = 803), ages 11–18 (n = 884), ages 19–64 (n = 1655) and ages 65 and higher (n = 428). The impact of fortification by 4.2 μg vitamin D per 100 g of RTEC on vitamin D intake and status was mathematically modelled. Average vitamin D daily intake was age-dependent, ranging from ~2.6 (age range 4–18 years) to ~5.0 μg (older than 64 years). Average 25(OH)D concentration ranged from 43 to 51 nmol/L, the highest in children. The relationship between vitamin D intake and status followed an asymptotic curve with a predicted plateau concentration ranging from 52 in children to 83 nmol/L in elderly. The fortification model showed that serum concentrations increased with ~1.0 in children to ~6.5 nmol/L in the elderly. This study revealed that vitamin D intake in the UK population is low with 25(OH)D concentrations being suboptimal for general health. Fortification of breakfast cereals can contribute to improve overall vitamin D status. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D intake and status; vitamin D fortification; breakfast cereals; National Diet and Nutrition Survey vitamin D; vitamin D intake and status; vitamin D fortification; breakfast cereals; National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Calame, W.; Street, L.; Hulshof, T. Vitamin D Serum Levels in the UK Population, including a Mathematical Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Vitamin D Fortified Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereals: Application of the NDNS Database. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1868.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop