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Article

Black Raspberries and Protocatechuic Acid Mitigate DNFB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity by Down-Regulating Dendritic Cell Activation and Inhibiting Mediators of Effector Responses

1
Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Division of Anatomy, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
5
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
6
Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061701
Received: 24 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 6 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Function and Nutrient Supplementation)
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is the most common occupational dermatological disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the sensitization stage of CHS, while T-cells facilitate the effector mechanisms that drive CHS. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis, BRB) and BRB phytochemicals possess immunomodulatory properties, but their dietary effects on CHS are unknown. We examined the effects of diets containing BRB and protocatechuic acid (PCA, a constituent of BRB and an anthocyanin metabolite produced largely by gut microbes), on CHS, using a model induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenze (DNFB). Mice were fed control diet or diets supplemented with BRB or PCA. In vitro bone-marrow derived DCs and RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with BRB extract and PCA. Mice fed BRB or PCA supplemented diets displayed decreased DNFB-induced ear swelling, marked by decreased splenic DC accumulation. BRB extract diminished DC maturation associated with reduced Cd80 expression and Interleukin (IL)-12 secretion, and PCA reduced IL-12. Dietary supplementation with BRB and PCA induced differential decreases in IL-12-driven CHS mediators, including Interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells. BRB extracts and PCA directly attenuated CHS-promoting macrophage activity mediated by nitric oxide and IL-12. Our results demonstrate that BRB and PCA mitigate CHS pathology, providing a rationale for CHS alleviation via dietary supplementation with BRB or BRB derived anthocyanins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rubus occidentalis; contact hypersensitivity; inflammatory; IFN-γ; dendritic cells Rubus occidentalis; contact hypersensitivity; inflammatory; IFN-γ; dendritic cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, K.; Ryan, N.; Siddiqui, A.; Pero, T.; Volpedo, G.; Cooperstone, J.L.; Oghumu, S. Black Raspberries and Protocatechuic Acid Mitigate DNFB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity by Down-Regulating Dendritic Cell Activation and Inhibiting Mediators of Effector Responses. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061701

AMA Style

Anderson K, Ryan N, Siddiqui A, Pero T, Volpedo G, Cooperstone JL, Oghumu S. Black Raspberries and Protocatechuic Acid Mitigate DNFB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity by Down-Regulating Dendritic Cell Activation and Inhibiting Mediators of Effector Responses. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, Kelvin, Nathan Ryan, Arham Siddiqui, Travis Pero, Greta Volpedo, Jessica L. Cooperstone, and Steve Oghumu. 2020. "Black Raspberries and Protocatechuic Acid Mitigate DNFB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity by Down-Regulating Dendritic Cell Activation and Inhibiting Mediators of Effector Responses" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1701. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061701

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