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Open AccessArticle

Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels May Attenuate the Detrimental Association between Weight Status, Metabolic Phenotype and C-Reactive Protein in Adolescents—A Multi-Cohort Study

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Faculty of Health and Sciences, Klaipeda University, 92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
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School of Nursing, University of Minho, 4710 Braga, Portugal
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Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing (UICISA: E), Nursing School of Coimbra (ESEnfC), 3000-232 Coimbra, Portugal
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Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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Grupo de Ejercicio Físico y Deportes, Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones, Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
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Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Navarrabiomed-IdiSNA, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago 7500618, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051461
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
Results from several studies show that only obese, unfit subjects, but not obese, fit subjects, are at higher mortality risk than are normal-weight fit subjects. The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the differences in C-reactive protein levels across different metabolic phenotypes (healthy and unhealthy) of weight status and (2) ascertain whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) attenuate the association of C-reactive protein and metabolic phenotypes of weight status. This was a pooled study, which included data from three cross-sectional projects (1706 youth (921 girls) aged 12–18 years). We used a Shuttle run test to assess CRF. Adolescents were classified into six metabolic phenotypes (healthy and unhealthy) of weight status (non-overweight, overweight and obese), based on age- and sex-specific cutoff points for triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, glucose and body mass index. High-sensitivity assays were used to obtain the C-reactive protein as inflammatory biomarker. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, pubertal stage and country), the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) shows that C-reactive protein is directly associated with metabolic phenotypes of weight status. Subjects with obesity, regardless of their metabolic profile, had higher levels of C-reactive protein Z-score. In addition, (after adjustments for potential confounders) a two-way ANCOVA showed that high levels of CRF attenuated the associations of C-reactive protein levels in metabolic healthy non-overweight and in adolescents with obesity. In conclusion, higher CRF levels may attenuate the detrimental association between obesity and C-reactive protein independently of metabolic phenotype. Findings from this study are important for prevention, clinical practice on issues associated with adiposity and metabolic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic; healthy; obese; aerobic; fitness; inflammation; youth metabolic; healthy; obese; aerobic; fitness; inflammation; youth
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Agostinis-Sobrinho, C.; Rosário, R.; Santos, R.; Norkiene, S.; Mota, J.; Rauckienė-Michaelsson, A.; González-Ruíz, K.; Izquierdo, M.; Garcia-Hermoso, A.; Ramírez-Vélez, R. Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels May Attenuate the Detrimental Association between Weight Status, Metabolic Phenotype and C-Reactive Protein in Adolescents—A Multi-Cohort Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1461.

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