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The Effect of a Family-Based Lifestyle Education Program on Dietary Habits, Hepatic Fat and Adiposity Markers in 8–12-Year-Old Children with Overweight/Obesity

1
Institute for Innovation and Sustainable Development in Food Chain (IS-FOOD), Public University of Navarra, Calle Tajonar 22, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
2
Navarra’s Health Research Institute (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
3
Department of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba, Spain
4
Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, University Hospital of Araba (HUA), 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
5
Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Osatek, University Hospital of Araba (HUA), 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051443
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Healthy lifestyle education programs are recommended for obesity prevention and treatment. However, there is no previous information on the effects of these programs on the reduction of hepatic fat percentage. The aims were (i) to examine the effectiveness of a 22-week family-based lifestyle education program on dietary habits, and (ii) to explore the associations of changes in dietary intake with percent hepatic fat reduction and adiposity in children with overweight/obesity. A total of 81 children with overweight/obesity (aged 10.6 ± 1.1 years, 53.1% girls) and their parents attended a 22-week family based healthy lifestyle and psychoeducational program accompanied with (intensive group) or without (control) an exercise program. Hepatic fat (magnetic resonance imaging), adiposity (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and dietary habits (two non-consecutive 24 h-recalls) were assessed before and after the intervention. Energy (p < 0.01) fat (p < 0.01) and added sugar (p < 0.03) intake were significantly reduced in both groups at the end of the program, while, in addition, carbohydrates intake (p < 0.04) was reduced exclusively in the control group, and simple sugar (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.03) intake was reduced in the exercise group. Fruit (p < 0.03) and low-fat/skimmed dairy consumption (p < 0.02), the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and teenagers (KIDMED, p < 0.01) and breakfast quality index (p < 0.03) were significantly higher in both control and intervention groups after the intervention. Moreover, participants in the exercise group increased the adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (p < 0.001), whereas the ratio of evening-morning energy intake was significantly lower exclusively in the control group after the program (p < 0.02). Changes in energy intake were significantly associated with changes in fat mass index (FMI) in the exercise group, whereas changes in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption was associated with percent hepatic fat reduction (p < 0.05) in the control group. A 22-week family-based healthy lifestyle program seems to be effective on improving diet quality and health in children with overweight/obesity and these should focus on SSB avoidance and physical activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: lifestyle program; dietary habits; hepatic fat; sugar-sweetened beverages lifestyle program; dietary habits; hepatic fat; sugar-sweetened beverages
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arenaza, L.; Medrano, M.; Oses, M.; Amasene, M.; Díez, I.; Rodríguez-Vigil, B.; Labayen, I. The Effect of a Family-Based Lifestyle Education Program on Dietary Habits, Hepatic Fat and Adiposity Markers in 8–12-Year-Old Children with Overweight/Obesity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051443

AMA Style

Arenaza L, Medrano M, Oses M, Amasene M, Díez I, Rodríguez-Vigil B, Labayen I. The Effect of a Family-Based Lifestyle Education Program on Dietary Habits, Hepatic Fat and Adiposity Markers in 8–12-Year-Old Children with Overweight/Obesity. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5):1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arenaza, Lide, María Medrano, Maddi Oses, Maria Amasene, Ignacio Díez, Beatriz Rodríguez-Vigil, and Idoia Labayen. 2020. "The Effect of a Family-Based Lifestyle Education Program on Dietary Habits, Hepatic Fat and Adiposity Markers in 8–12-Year-Old Children with Overweight/Obesity" Nutrients 12, no. 5: 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051443

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