Next Article in Journal
Impaired Daytime Urinary Sodium Excretion Impacts Nighttime Blood Pressure and Nocturnal Dipping at Older Ages in the General Population
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K on Vitamin Status and Metabolic Profile in Patients with Fat Malabsorption with and without Urolithiasis
Previous Article in Journal
Cook-EdTM: A Model for Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Cooking Programs to Improve Diet and Health
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Recommendations for Bariatric Patients to Prevent Kidney Stone Formation
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Two Dietary Supplements for Treatment of Uric Acid Renal Lithiasis: Citrate vs. Citrate + Theobromine

1
Urology Service of Manacor Hospital, 07500 Balearic Islands, Spain
2
Laboratory of Renal Lithiasis Research, University Institute of Health Sciences Research (IUNICS-IdISBa), University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072012
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Urinary Stone Disease)
Background. Uric acid (UA) renal lithiasis has a high rate of recurrence and a prevalence ranging from 10% and 15%, depending on the population. The most important etiological factor is persistence of urinary pH below 5.5 and one of the most common treatments is alkalization with citrate. Recent studies demonstrated that theobromine, which is abundant in chocolate and cocoa, is a potent inhibitor of UA crystallization. Aim. The aim was to compare the efficacy of citrate versus citrate + theobromine as treatment for UA lithiasis. Methods. This randomized cross-over trial investigated the efficacy of two treatments in 47 patients with UA renal lithiasis. Urine volume, pH, UA excretion, theobromine excretion, and risk of UA crystallization (RUAC) at baseline and at the end of each intervention period were measured. Results. Each treatment significantly reduced the risk of UA crystallization compared to basal values. The RUAC after citrate + theobromine was lower than the RUAC after citrate, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. The combined consumption of citrate and theobromine may be a promising strategy for the prevention of UA kidney stones. View Full-Text
Keywords: uric acid; urolithiasis; theobromine; dietary treatment uric acid; urolithiasis; theobromine; dietary treatment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hernandez, Y.; Costa-Bauza, A.; Calvó, P.; Benejam, J.; Sanchis, P.; Grases, F. Comparison of Two Dietary Supplements for Treatment of Uric Acid Renal Lithiasis: Citrate vs. Citrate + Theobromine. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2012.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop