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Antitumor, Anti-inflammatory and Antiallergic Effects of Agaricus blazei Mushroom Extract and the Related Medicinal Basidiomycetes Mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

1
Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway
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Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
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National CBRNE Medical Advisory Centre, Oslo University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway;[email protected]
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Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
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Department of Surgery, Vestfold Hospital, 3103 Tønsberg, Norway
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Department of Haematology, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
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KG Jebsen Centre for B-cell Malignancies, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
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Department of Gastrointestinal and Pediatric Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051339
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Since the 1980s, medicinal effects have been documented in scientific studies with the related Basidiomycota mushrooms Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM), Hericium erinaceus (HE) and Grifola frondosa (GF) from Brazilian and Eastern traditional medicine. Special focus has been on their antitumor effects, but the mushrooms’ anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties have also been investigated. The antitumor mechanisms were either direct tumor attack, e.g., apoptosis and metastatic suppression, or indirect defense, e.g., inhibited tumor neovascularization and T helper cell (Th) 1 immune response. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms were a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and changed gut microbiota, and the antiallergic mechanism was amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance. Since a predominant Th2 milieu is also found in cancer, which quite often is caused by a local chronic inflammation, the three conditions—tumor, inflammation and allergy—seem to be linked. Further mechanisms for HE were increased nerve and beneficial gut microbiota growth, and oxidative stress regulation. The medicinal mushrooms AbM, HE and GF appear to be safe, and can, in fact, increase longevity in animal models, possibly due to reduced tumorigenesis and oxidation. This article reviews preclinical and clinical findings with these mushrooms and the mechanisms behind them. View Full-Text
Keywords: antitumor; anti-inflammatory; antiallergic; Agaricus blazei; Hericium erinaceus; Grifola frondosa; mushrooms; clinical studies antitumor; anti-inflammatory; antiallergic; Agaricus blazei; Hericium erinaceus; Grifola frondosa; mushrooms; clinical studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hetland, G.; Tangen, J.-M.; Mahmood, F.; Mirlashari, M.R.; Nissen-Meyer, L.S.H.; Nentwich, I.; Therkelsen, S.P.; Tjønnfjord, G.E.; Johnson, E. Antitumor, Anti-inflammatory and Antiallergic Effects of Agaricus blazei Mushroom Extract and the Related Medicinal Basidiomycetes Mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051339

AMA Style

Hetland G, Tangen J-M, Mahmood F, Mirlashari MR, Nissen-Meyer LSH, Nentwich I, Therkelsen SP, Tjønnfjord GE, Johnson E. Antitumor, Anti-inflammatory and Antiallergic Effects of Agaricus blazei Mushroom Extract and the Related Medicinal Basidiomycetes Mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5):1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051339

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hetland, Geir, Jon-Magnus Tangen, Faiza Mahmood, Mohammad R. Mirlashari, Lise S.H. Nissen-Meyer, Ivo Nentwich, Stig P. Therkelsen, Geir E. Tjønnfjord, and Egil Johnson. 2020. "Antitumor, Anti-inflammatory and Antiallergic Effects of Agaricus blazei Mushroom Extract and the Related Medicinal Basidiomycetes Mushrooms, Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies" Nutrients 12, no. 5: 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051339

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