Background: Deficiency of vitamin D, an anti-inflammatory micronutrient with some favorable effects on lipid profiles, has been found to be highly prevalent in adolescents. We aimed to investigate the effect of a school-based vitamin D supplementation regimen on the correction of vitamin D deficiency as well as lipid and inflammatory profiles of healthy adolescent boys. Methods: In this randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial, seventy-one healthy adolescent boys (age 17 years old) were recruited from one high school in Tehran, Iran, and randomly assigned to two groups. The supplement group received vitamin D pearls at a dose of 50,000 IU monthly for 6 months, this dose is indeed defined by the Ministry of Health in Iran for a potential national school-based vitamin D supplementation program. The other group was given placebo pearls for the same duration. Before and after the treatment, the serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), retinol, lead (Pb), the lipid profile and the inflammatory biomarkers were measured and compared. Results: Between-groups statistical analysis showed that a dose (50,000 IU/month) vitamin D significantly increased the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) (p
< 0.001) and decreased serum levels of PTH (p
= 0.003). No significant change was observed in serum levels of retinol and Pb. Between-group analysis revealed that the serum levels of TG (P = 0.001) decreased while an increase in serum levels of HDL (p
= 0.021) was observed (p
< 0.05). Both the within- and between-group analysis showed that serum tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) concentration declined while serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased in response to vitamin D supplementation (p
< 0.05). Conclusion: A supplementation regimen of (50,000 IU/month) vitamin D in a context with high rates of vitamin deficiency has shown positive impacts on the serum vitamin D, lipid profile and inflammatory biomarkers in healthy adolescent boys.
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