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Open AccessArticle

The Sun’s Vitamin in Adult Patients Affected by Prader–Willi Syndrome

1
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Unit of Endocrinology, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Centro Italiano per la cura e il Benessere del paziente con Obesità (C.I.B.O), Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Endocrinology Unit, University Medical School of Naples, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Cattedra Unesco “Educazione alla salute e allo sviluppo sostenibile”, University Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These Authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041132
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia with progressive, severe obesity, and an increased risk of obesity-related comorbidities in adult life. Although low dietary vitamin D intake and low 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels are commonly reported in PWS in the context of bone metabolism, the association of low 25OHD levels with fat mass has not been extensively evaluated in PWS adults. The aims of this study were to investigate the following in PWS adults: (1) 25OHD levels and the dietary vitamin D intake; (2) associations among 25OHD levels with anthropometric measurements and fat mass; (3) specific cut-off values for body mass index (BMI) and fat mass predictive of the 25OHD levels. In this cross-sectional, single-center study we enrolled 30 participants, 15 PWS adults (age 19–41 years and 40% males) and 15 control subjects matched by age, sex, and BMI from the same geographical area (latitude 40° 49’ N; elevation 17 m). Fat mass was assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) phase-sensitive system. The 25OHD levels were determined by a direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Dietary vitamin D intake data was collected by three-day food records. The 25OHD levels in the PWS adults were constantly lower across all categories of BMI and fat mass compared with their obese counterpart. The 25OHD levels were negatively associated with BMI (p = 0.04), waist circumference (p = 0.03), fat mass (p = 0.04), and dietary vitamin D intake (p < 0.001). During multiple regression analysis, dietary vitamin D intake was entered at the first step (p < 0.001), thus explaining 84% of 25OHD level variability. The threshold values of BMI and fat mass predicting the lowest decrease in the 25OHD levels were found at BMI ≥ 42 kg/m2 (p = 0.01) and fat mass ≥ 42 Kg (p = 0.003). In conclusion, our data indicate that: (i) 25OHD levels and dietary vitamin D intake were lower in PWS adults than in the control, independent of body fat differences; (ii) 25OHD levels were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, but low dietary vitamin D intake was the major determinant of low vitamin D status in these patients; (iii) sample-specific cut-off values of BMI and fat mass might help to predict risks of the lowest 25OHD level decreases in PWS adults. The presence of trained nutritionists in the integrated care teams of PWS adults is strongly suggested in order to provide an accurate nutritional assessment and tailored vitamin D supplementations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS); vitamin D; dietary vitamin D intake; obesity; fat mass; nutritionist Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS); vitamin D; dietary vitamin D intake; obesity; fat mass; nutritionist
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barrea, L.; Muscogiuri, G.; Pugliese, G.; Aprano, S.; de Alteriis, G.; Di Somma, C.; Colao, A.; Savastano, S. The Sun’s Vitamin in Adult Patients Affected by Prader–Willi Syndrome. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041132

AMA Style

Barrea L, Muscogiuri G, Pugliese G, Aprano S, de Alteriis G, Di Somma C, Colao A, Savastano S. The Sun’s Vitamin in Adult Patients Affected by Prader–Willi Syndrome. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Pugliese, Gabriella; Aprano, Sara; de Alteriis, Giulia; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia. 2020. "The Sun’s Vitamin in Adult Patients Affected by Prader–Willi Syndrome" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1132. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041132

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