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Open AccessReview

Role of Vitamin D in Preventing and Treating Selected Extraskeletal Diseases—An Umbrella Review

1
German Nutrition Society, 53175 Bonn, Germany
2
Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer’s and Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
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Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
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Department of Adult and Pediatric Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology, University Hospital Saarland, 66424 Homburg, Germany
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Institute for Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
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Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 90408 Nuremberg, Germany
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Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Geriatric Psychiatry, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany
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Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, 32545 Bad Oeynhausen, Germany
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University Center of Health Sciences at Klinikum Augsburg (UNIKA-T), Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 86156 Augsburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040969
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
Evidence is accumulating that vitamin D may have beneficial effects on respiratory tract, autoimmune, neuro-degenerative, and mental diseases. The present umbrella review of systematic reviews (SRs) of cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs), plus single Mendelian randomisation studies aims to update current knowledge on the potential role of vitamin D in preventing and treating these extraskeletal diseases. Altogether, 73 SRs were identified. Observational data on primary prevention suggest an inverse association between vitamin D status and the risk of acute respiratory tract infections (ARI), dementia and cognitive decline, and depression, whereas studies regarding asthma, multiple sclerosis (MS), and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are scarce. SRs of RCTs support observational data only for the risk of ARI. No respective RCTs are available for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), MS, and T1DM. SRs of RCTs indicate beneficial therapeutic effects in vitamin D-deficient patients with asthma and COPD, while effects on major depression and T1DM need to be further elucidated. Mendelian randomisation studies do not consistently support the results of SRs. Since several limitations of the included SRs and existing RCTs do not permit definitive conclusions regarding vitamin D and the selected diseases, further high-quality RCTs are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma; COPD; ARI; dementia and cognitive decline; depression; multiple sclerosis; T1DM; umbrella review vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma; COPD; ARI; dementia and cognitive decline; depression; multiple sclerosis; T1DM; umbrella review
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Maretzke, F.; Bechthold, A.; Egert, S.; Ernst, J.B.; Melo van Lent, D.; Pilz, S.; Reichrath, J.; Stangl, G.I.; Stehle, P.; Volkert, D.; Wagner, M.; Waizenegger, J.; Zittermann, A.; Linseisen, J., on behalf of the German Nutrition Society (DGE); Role of Vitamin D in Preventing and Treating Selected Extraskeletal Diseases—An Umbrella Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 969.

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