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The Role of Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements in Ocular Surface Diseases

1
Ophthalmology Unit, S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Medical and Surgical Sciences Department, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Eye Clinic of Genoa, Policlinico San Martino, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
4
Medical Oncology Department, Santa Maria della Scaletta Hospital, 40026 Imola, Italy
5
Department of Ophthalmology, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040952
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 27 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Eye Health)
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface system whose chore mechanisms are tear film instability, inflammation, tear hyperosmolarity and epithelial damage. In recent years, novel therapies specifically targeting inflammation and oxidative stress are being investigated and used in this field. Therefore, an increasing body of evidence supporting the possible role of different micronutrients and nutraceutical products for the treatment of ocular surface diseases is now available. In the present review, we analyzed in detail the effects on ocular surface of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A, B12, C, D, selenium, curcumin and flavonoids. Among these, the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in ameliorating DED signs and symptoms is supported by robust scientific evidence. Further long-term clinical trials are warranted to confirm the safety and efficacy of the supplementation of the other micronutrients and nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocular surface; dry eye disease; nutritional supplements; nutraceuticals ocular surface; dry eye disease; nutritional supplements; nutraceuticals
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Pellegrini, M.; Senni, C.; Bernabei, F.; Cicero, A.F.G.; Vagge, A.; Maestri, A.; Scorcia, V.; Giannaccare, G. The Role of Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements in Ocular Surface Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12, 952.

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