Next Article in Journal
Influence of the Mediterranean and Ketogenic Diets on Cognitive Status and Decline: A Narrative Review
Previous Article in Journal
High Variability in Erythrocyte, Plasma and Whole Blood EPA and DHA Levels in Response to Supplementation
Article

Influence of Demographic and Lifestyle Variables on Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Their Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Physiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Computer Languages and Systems, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work as last authors.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041018
Received: 8 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Several studies have shown that a low magnesium (Mg) intake in the diet is associated with greater cardiovascular risk and greater risk of diabetes. However, the results are not consistent in all populations. To minimize the biases derived from diet measurement, more objective biomarkers of magnesium status have been proposed. Although there is still no ideal biomarker for Mg, several studies have shown that plasma Mg concentrations could be a relatively acceptable biomarker for cardiovascular risk assessment. However, further studies are required to better characterize this marker in different populations. Our aim was to analyze the association between plasma Mg concentrations (measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) methods, and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals from a general Mediterranean population (aged 18–80 years). The influence of demographic and lifestyle variables, including adherence to the Mediterranean diet, on plasma Mg concentrations was analyzed. The mean Mg level of the population studied was 0.77 ± 0.08 mmol/L, the prevalence of hypomagnesemia (<0.70 mmol/L) being 18.6%. We did not find any statistically significant differences between plasma Mg concentrations and sex, age, tobacco smoking and total adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p > 0.05). We found a statistically significant association between plasma Mg concentrations and the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (0.77 ± 0.08 mmol/L in non-diabetics versus 0.73 ± 0.13 mmol/L in diabetics; p = 0.009). Despite the low prevalence of type-2 diabetes in this population (11.24% in subjects with hypomagnesemia versus 3.91%, in normomagnesemia; p = 0.005), hypomagnesemia was associated with greater odds of being diabetic in comparison with normomagnesemia (OR = 3.36; p = 0.016, even after adjustment for sex, age, obesity, and medications). On the other hand, no statistically significant association of plasma Mg concentrations with obesity, hypertension, fasting triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or uric acid was found. However, in contrast to what was initially expected, a statistically significant association was found between plasma Mg concentrations (basically in the highest quartile) and greater total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results contribute to increasing the evidence gathered by numerous studies on the inverse association between hypomagnesemia and type-2 diabetes, as well as to the observation, previously reported in some studies, of a direct association with hypercholesterolemia. This paradoxical link should be deeply investigated in further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; diabetes; cholesterol; mediterranean diet; mediterranean population magnesium; diabetes; cholesterol; mediterranean diet; mediterranean population
MDPI and ACS Style

Barragán, R.; Llopis, J.; Portolés, O.; Sorlí, J.V.; Coltell, O.; Rivas-García, L.; Asensio, E.M.; Ortega-Azorín, C.; Corella, D.; Sánchez-González, C. Influence of Demographic and Lifestyle Variables on Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Their Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041018

AMA Style

Barragán R, Llopis J, Portolés O, Sorlí JV, Coltell O, Rivas-García L, Asensio EM, Ortega-Azorín C, Corella D, Sánchez-González C. Influence of Demographic and Lifestyle Variables on Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Their Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barragán, Rocío, Juan Llopis, Olga Portolés, Jose V. Sorlí, Oscar Coltell, Lorenzo Rivas-García, Eva M. Asensio, Carolina Ortega-Azorín, Dolores Corella, and Cristina Sánchez-González. 2020. "Influence of Demographic and Lifestyle Variables on Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Their Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041018

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop