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Pathophysiological Role and Therapeutic Implications of Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Focus on Chronic Autoimmune Diseases

1
Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale UPO, 28100 Novara, Italy
2
Division of Internal Medicine, “AOU Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 Novara, Italy
3
CAAD, Centre for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, 28100 Novara, Italy
4
Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Unit and Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, 25128 Brescia, Italy
5
Division of General Medicine, Ospedale S. Giuseppe, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 28921 Verbania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030789
Received: 29 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
Vitamin D is a pleiotropic secosteroid yielding multiple actions in human physiology. Besides the canonical regulatory activity on bone metabolism, several non-classical actions have been described and the ability of vitamin D to partake in the regulation of the immune system is particularly interesting, though far stronger and convincing evidence has been collected in in vitro as compared to in vivo studies. Whether vitamin D is able to regulate at physiological concentrations the human immune system remains unproven to date. Consequently, it is not established if vitamin D status is a factor involved in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases and if cholecalciferol supplementation acts as an adjuvant for autoimmune diseases. The development of autoimmunity is a heterogeneous process, which may involve different organs and systems with a wide range of clinical implications. In the present paper, we reviewed the current evidences regarding vitamin D role in the pathogenesis and management of different autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; rheumatoid arthritis; spondyloarthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; antiphospholipid syndrome; type 1 diabetes mellitus; autoimmune thyroid disease; Addison’s disease; autoimmune liver disease vitamin D; autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; rheumatoid arthritis; spondyloarthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; antiphospholipid syndrome; type 1 diabetes mellitus; autoimmune thyroid disease; Addison’s disease; autoimmune liver disease
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Bellan, M.; Andreoli, L.; Mele, C.; Sainaghi, P.P.; Rigamonti, C.; Piantoni, S.; De Benedittis, C.; Aimaretti, G.; Pirisi, M.; Marzullo, P. Pathophysiological Role and Therapeutic Implications of Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Focus on Chronic Autoimmune Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12, 789.

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