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Open AccessArticle

Chrono-Nutrition and Diet Quality in Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Hospital Gelderse Vallei, 6716 RP Gelderland, The Netherlands
3
Louis Bolk Institute, 3981 AJ Bunnik, The Netherlands
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020539
Received: 21 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Background: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD), characterized by delayed sleep-onset and problems with awakening in the morning, is mostly prevalent in adolescents. Several studies have suggested chrono-nutrition could present a possible modifiable risk factor for DSPD. Objective: To describe differences in chrono-nutrition and diet quality in adolescents with DSPD compared to age-related controls. Methods: Chrono-nutrition and diet quality of 46 adolescents with DSPD, aged 13–20 years, and 43 controls were assessed via questionnaires. Diet quality included the Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index) and Eating Choices Index (ECI). Results were analysed using logistic regression and Spearman’s partial correlation. Results: Compared with controls, DSPD patients consumed their first food of the day significantly later on weekdays (+32 ± 12 min, p = 0.010) and weekends (+25 ± 8 min, p = 0.005). They consumed their dinner more regularly (80.4% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.002) and consumed morning-snacks less frequently (3.0 ± 2.1 days vs. 4.2 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.006). No differences in clock times of breakfast, lunch, or dinner were found. Moreover, no significant differences in overall diet quality were observed. Conclusion: This descriptive study showed chrono-nutritional differences between adolescents with and without DPSD. Further studies are needed to explore features of chrono-nutrition as a possible treatment of DPSD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chrono-nutrition; meal timing; diet quality; delayed sleep-wake phase disorder; circadian rhythms; adolescents chrono-nutrition; meal timing; diet quality; delayed sleep-wake phase disorder; circadian rhythms; adolescents
MDPI and ACS Style

Berendsen, M.; Boss, M.; Smits, M.; Pot, G.K. Chrono-Nutrition and Diet Quality in Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder. Nutrients 2020, 12, 539.

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