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Open AccessArticle

Association between Timing of Energy Intake and Insulin Sensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
2
Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
3
Sleep and Circadian Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020503
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 16 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
In addition to the caloric and macronutrient composition of meals, timing of energy consumption may be important for optimal glucose metabolism. Our goal was to examine whether the habitual timing of energy intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. Volunteers without diabetes aged 21–50 years completed a 3-day food diary and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin sensitivity (n = 44). From the food diary, we calculated the proportions of the total energy and macronutrients consumed in the morning and evening, and the clock time at which 25%, 50% and 75% of total energy was consumed. A greater proportion of energy intake in the morning was significantly associated with higher insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = 2.8 per 10%; 95%CI: 0.3, 5.2). The time at which 25% of energy was consumed was associated with insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = −1.6 per hour; 95%CI: −3.0, −0.3) and QUICKI (B = −1.4 per hour, 95%CI: −2.8, −0.1). The timing of carbohydrate consumption demonstrated similar associations. Greater energy intake earlier in the day was associated with higher insulin sensitivity in individuals without diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian rhythm; insulin resistance; diet habits; Type 2 Diabetes circadian rhythm; insulin resistance; diet habits; Type 2 Diabetes
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Rangaraj, V.R.; Siddula, A.; Burgess, H.J.; Pannain, S.; Knutson, K.L. Association between Timing of Energy Intake and Insulin Sensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 503.

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