Next Article in Journal
Galangin Protects against Symptoms of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute Colitis by Activating Autophagy and Modulating the Gut Microbiota
Next Article in Special Issue
Association between Timing of Energy Intake and Insulin Sensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Timing of Exercise and Eating on Postprandial Response in Adults: A Systematic Review
Article

Saliva Samples as A Tool to Study the Effect of Meal Timing on Metabolic And Inflammatory Biomarkers

1
Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
2
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité University of Medicine, 12203 Berlin, Germany
4
Biomineral Research Group, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
5
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Spital Bülach, 8180 Bülach, Switzerland
6
Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
7
NutriAct-Competence Cluster Nutrition Research Berlin-Potsdam, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
8
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), 10785 Berlin, Germany
9
Institute of Nutrition, University of Potsdam, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
10
Laboratory of Chronobiology, Institute for Medical Immunology, Charité University of Medicine, 10117 Berlin, Germany
11
Reseach Group Molecular Nutritional Medicine, Dept. of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020340
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 25 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Meal timing affects metabolic regulation in humans. Most studies use blood samples for their investigations. Saliva, although easily available and non-invasive, seems to be rarely used for chrononutritional studies. In this pilot study, we tested if saliva samples could be used to study the effect of timing of carbohydrate and fat intake on metabolic rhythms. In this cross-over trial, 29 nonobese men were randomized to two isocaloric 4-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13:30 and high-fat meals between 16:30 and 22:00 or (2) the inverse order of meals. Stimulated saliva samples were collected every 4 h for 24 h at the end of each intervention, and levels of hormones and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed in saliva and blood. Cortisol, melatonin, resistin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 and MCP-1 demonstrated distinct diurnal variations, mirroring daytime reports in blood and showing significant correlations with blood levels. The rhythm patterns were similar for both diets, indicating that timing of carbohydrate and fat intake has a minimal effect on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in saliva. Our study revealed that saliva is a promising tool for the non-invasive assessment of metabolic rhythms in chrononutritional studies, but standardisation of sample collection is needed in out-of-lab studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: meal timing; saliva; circadian clock; adiponectin; resistin; visfatin; insulin; melatonin; cortisol; cytokines meal timing; saliva; circadian clock; adiponectin; resistin; visfatin; insulin; melatonin; cortisol; cytokines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kessler, K.; Hornemann, S.; Rudovich, N.; Weber, D.; Grune, T.; Kramer, A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.H.; Pivovarova-Ramich, O. Saliva Samples as A Tool to Study the Effect of Meal Timing on Metabolic And Inflammatory Biomarkers. Nutrients 2020, 12, 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020340

AMA Style

Kessler K, Hornemann S, Rudovich N, Weber D, Grune T, Kramer A, Pfeiffer AFH, Pivovarova-Ramich O. Saliva Samples as A Tool to Study the Effect of Meal Timing on Metabolic And Inflammatory Biomarkers. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2):340. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kessler, Katharina, Silke Hornemann, Natalia Rudovich, Daniela Weber, Tilman Grune, Achim Kramer, Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, and Olga Pivovarova-Ramich. 2020. "Saliva Samples as A Tool to Study the Effect of Meal Timing on Metabolic And Inflammatory Biomarkers" Nutrients 12, no. 2: 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020340

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop