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Food Intervention with Folate Reduces TNF-α and Interleukin Levels in Overweight and Obese Women with the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism: A Randomized Trial

1
Postgraduate Program in Nutrition Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
2
Postgraduate Program in Molecular and Human Biology, Center of Exact and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
3
Departament of Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
4
Postgraduate Program in Nutrition Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife 50670901, Brazil
5
Department of Economics, Postgraduate Program in App1lied Economics and Economics of the Public Sector, Center for Applied Social Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
6
Postgraduate Program in Health Decision Models, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
7
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020361
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Gene Interactions)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated with body fat accumulation could possibly trigger an inflammatory process by elevating homocysteine levels and increasing cytokine production, causing several diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of food intervention, and not folate supplements, on the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in overweight and obese women with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. A randomized, double-blind eight-week clinical trial of 48 overweight and obese women was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. They received 300 g of vegetables daily for eight weeks containing different doses of folate: 95 µg/day for Group 1 and 191 µg/day for Group 2. MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotyping was assessed by digestion with HinfI enzyme and on 12% polyacrylamide gels. Anthropometric measurements, 24-h dietary recall, and biochemical analysis (blood folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) were determined at the beginning and end of the study. Group 2 had a significant increase in folate intake (p < 0.001) and plasma folic acid (p < 0.05) for individuals with the cytosine–cytosine (CC), cytosine–thymine (CT), and thymine–thymine (TT) genotypes. However, only individuals with the TT genotype presented reduced levels of Hcy, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (p < 0.001). Group 1 showed significant differences in folate consumption (p < 0.001) and folic acid levels (p < 0.05) for individuals with the CT and TT genotypes. Food intervention with folate from vegetables increased folic acid levels and reduced interleukins, TNF-α, and Hcy levels, mainly for individuals with the TT genotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: interleukins; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; dietary intervention; polymorphism; genetic variants; folate; overweight; obesity interleukins; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; dietary intervention; polymorphism; genetic variants; folate; overweight; obesity
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Lisboa, J.V.C.; Ribeiro, M.R.; Luna, R.C.P.; Lima, R.P.A.; do Nascimento, R.A.F.; Monteiro, M.G.C.A.; Lima, K.Q.F.; Fechine, C.P.N.S.; de Oliveira, N.F.P.; Persuhn, D.C.; Veras, R.C.; Gonçalves, M.C.R.; Ferreira, F.E.L.L.; Lima, R.T.; da Silva, A.S.; Diniz, A.S.; de Almeida, A.T.C.; de Moraes, R.M.; Verly Junior, E.; Costa, M.J.C. Food Intervention with Folate Reduces TNF-α and Interleukin Levels in Overweight and Obese Women with the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism: A Randomized Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 361.

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