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Maternal Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations in Relation to Offspring Visual Acuity at 3 Years of Age: The GUSTO Study

1
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science and Technology Research, Singapore 117609, Singapore
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
3
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore 169856, Singapore
4
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
5
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit & NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton & University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
6
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
7
Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
8
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore 169857, Singapore
9
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
10
Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
11
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
12
Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020274
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Eye Health)
Lutein and zeaxanthin play important roles in visual functions, but their influence on early visual development is unclear. We related maternal lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations during pregnancy to offspring visual acuity (VA) in 471 mother–child pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Maternal concentrations of plasma lutein and zeaxanthin were determined at delivery. We measured uncorrected distance of VA in 3-year old children using a LEA Symbols chart; readings were converted to the logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR), with >0.3 logMAR indicating poor VA. Associations were examined using linear or Poisson regression adjusted for confounders. The median (inter-quartile range) of maternal lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were 0.13 (0.09, 0.18) and 0.09 (0.07, 0.12) µmol/L, respectively. A total of 126 children had poor VA. The highest tertile of maternal zeaxanthin concentration was associated with 38% lower likelihood of poor VA in children (95% CI: 0.42, 0.93, p-Trends = 0.02). Higher maternal lutein concentrations were associated with a lower likelihood of poor VA in children (RR 0.60 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.88) for middle tertile; RR 0.78 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.19) for highest tertile (p-Quadratic = 0.02)). In conclusion, lutein and zeaxanthin status during pregnancy may influence offspring early visual development; but the results require confirmation with further studies, including more comprehensive measurements of macular functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: lutein; zeaxanthin; pregnancy; visual acuity; child lutein; zeaxanthin; pregnancy; visual acuity; child
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Lai, J.S.; Veetil, V.O.; Lanca, C.; Lee, B.L.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.; Shek, L.P.; Yap, F.; Tan, K.H.; Chong, Y.S.; Ong, C.N.; Ngo, C.S.; Saw, S.-M.; Chong, M.F.F. Maternal Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations in Relation to Offspring Visual Acuity at 3 Years of Age: The GUSTO Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 274.

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