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Associations of Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Carbohydrate with the Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study

by 1,†, 2,† and 1,*
1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si 10408, Korea
2
Center for Uterine Cancer, National Cancer Center, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si 10408, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3742; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123742
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Background: The association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of cervical cancer has never been investigated. Thus, we aimed to find evidence of any association of GI and GL with the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, we included 1340 women (670 controls and 262, 187 and 221 patients with CIN1, CIN2/3, and cervical cancer, respectively) from the Korean human papillomavirus cohort study. Completed demographic questionnaires and semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires were collected. The association of dietary GI and GL with CIN and cervical cancer was estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: The multivariate odds ratios (OR) of the highest compared with the lowest quintile of GL for CIN1 were 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33–5.88). Dietary GI and GL were not associated with CIN2/3 and cervical cancer. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI) indicated a positive association between GI and GL and CIN 1 risk among women with a BMI (in kg/m2) <23 (OR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.32–6.53; p for trend = 0.031 for GI and OR = 3.15; 95% CI = 1.53–6.52; p for trend = 0.013 for GL), but not among those with a BMI of ≥23. A stratification analysis by menopausal status showed that the highest quintile of GI and GL was significantly associated with the risk of CIN1 (OR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.43–5.96; p for trend = 0.005) (OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.53–5.69; p for trend = 0.023) among premenopausal women. Also, in HPV positive women, dietary GL showed significant CIN1 risk (OR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.09–6.24; p for trend = 0.087). Conclusion: Our case-control study supports the hypothesized associations of dietary GI and GL with increased risk of CIN1. Thus, the consumption of low GI and GL foods plays a significant role in the prevention of cervical carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycemic index; glycemic load; CIN; cervical cancer; carbohydrates glycemic index; glycemic load; CIN; cervical cancer; carbohydrates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sreeja, S.R.; Seo, S.S.; Kim, M.K. Associations of Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Carbohydrate with the Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123742

AMA Style

Sreeja SR, Seo SS, Kim MK. Associations of Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Carbohydrate with the Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123742

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sreeja, Sundara R.; Seo, Sang S.; Kim, Mi K. 2020. "Associations of Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Carbohydrate with the Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer: A Case-Control Study" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3742. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123742

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