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Article

Low Oral Bioavailability and Partial Gut Microbiotic and Phase II Metabolism of Brussels/Witloof Chicory Sesquiterpene Lactones in Healthy Humans

1
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University (Northern Campus), Guangzhou 510080, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Guangzhou 510080, China
3
Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Nutrition Translation, Guangzhou 510080, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123675
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
Free and glycosylated sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), which are abundant in leafy vegetables including Brussels/witloof chicory, possess health-promoting effects in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetics of dietary source of SLs remain largely unknown. In this open-label and single-dose trial, sixteen healthy volunteers consumed 150 g of Brussels/witloof chicory juice containing 48.77 μmol SLs in 5 min. Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected before and after chicory consumption in 24 h. No SLs were detected in the serum, urine, and fecal samples before chicory consumption in all of the participants. Chicory consumption increased lactucin, 11β,13-dihydrolactucin, and their glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, rather than lactucopicrin and 11β,13-dihydrolactucopicrin, as well as glycosylated SLs in biological samples. The peak concentration of total SLs in serum reached 284.46 nmol/L at 1 h, while, in urine, this peak was 220.3 nmol between 2 and 6 h. The recovery of total SLs in blood, urine, and feces was 7.03%, 1.13%, and 43.76% of the ingested dose, respectively. Human fecal suspensions with intestinal microbiota degraded glycosylated SLs in chicory, and converted lactucopicrin and 11β,13-dihydrolactucopicrin to lactucin and 11β,13-dihydrolactucin, respectively. Collectively, Brussels/witloof chicory SLs are poorly bioavailable and they undergo partial gut microbial and phase II metabolism in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; Brussels/witloof chicory; gut microbiotic metabolism; phase II metabolism; pharmacokinetics; sesquiterpene lactones bioavailability; Brussels/witloof chicory; gut microbiotic metabolism; phase II metabolism; pharmacokinetics; sesquiterpene lactones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weng, H.; He, L.; Zheng, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Wang, D. Low Oral Bioavailability and Partial Gut Microbiotic and Phase II Metabolism of Brussels/Witloof Chicory Sesquiterpene Lactones in Healthy Humans. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3675. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123675

AMA Style

Weng H, He L, Zheng J, Li Q, Liu X, Wang D. Low Oral Bioavailability and Partial Gut Microbiotic and Phase II Metabolism of Brussels/Witloof Chicory Sesquiterpene Lactones in Healthy Humans. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3675. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123675

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weng, Hui; He, Luanying; Zheng, Jiakun; Li, Qing; Liu, Xiuping; Wang, Dongliang. 2020. "Low Oral Bioavailability and Partial Gut Microbiotic and Phase II Metabolism of Brussels/Witloof Chicory Sesquiterpene Lactones in Healthy Humans" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3675. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123675

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