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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Iodine Status and Thyroid Function in a Group of Seaweed Consumers in Norway

1
Department of Seafood and Nutrition, Institute of Marine Research, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway
2
Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Department of Contaminants and Biohazards, Institute of Marine Research, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway
4
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University (OsloMet), NO-0130 Oslo, Norway
5
Division of Infection Control, Environment and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, NO-0213 Oslo, Norway
6
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113483
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Seafood)
Seaweeds, or macroalgae, may be a good dietary iodine source but also a source of excessive iodine intake. The main aim in this study was to describe the iodine status and thyroid function in a group of macroalgae consumers. Two urine samples were collected from each participant (n = 44) to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) after habitual consumption of seaweed. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb), were measured in a subgroup (n = 19). A food frequency questionnaire and an iodine-specific 24 h recall were used to assess iodine intake and macroalgae consumption. The median (p25–p75) UIC was 1200 (370–2850) μg/L. Median (p25–p75) estimated dietary iodine intake, excluding macroalgae, was 110 (78–680) μg/day, indicating that seaweed was the major contributor to the iodine intake. TSH levels were within the reference values, but higher than in other comparable population groups. One third of the participants used seaweeds daily, and sugar kelp, winged kelp, dulse and laver were the most common species. Labelling of iodine content was lacking for a large share of the products consumed. This study found excessive iodine status in macroalgae consumers after intake of dietary seaweeds. Including macroalgae in the diet may give excessive iodine exposure, and consumers should be made aware of the risk associated with inclusion of macroalgae in their diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: iodine; seaweed; urinary iodine status; thyroid function; iodine excess; food and nutrition security; new marine resources iodine; seaweed; urinary iodine status; thyroid function; iodine excess; food and nutrition security; new marine resources
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aakre, I.; Tveito Evensen, L.; Kjellevold, M.; Dahl, L.; Henjum, S.; Alexander, J.; Madsen, L.; Markhus, M.W. Iodine Status and Thyroid Function in a Group of Seaweed Consumers in Norway. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3483.

AMA Style

Aakre I, Tveito Evensen L, Kjellevold M, Dahl L, Henjum S, Alexander J, Madsen L, Markhus MW. Iodine Status and Thyroid Function in a Group of Seaweed Consumers in Norway. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3483.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aakre, Inger; Tveito Evensen, Lidunn; Kjellevold, Marian; Dahl, Lisbeth; Henjum, Sigrun; Alexander, Jan; Madsen, Lise; Markhus, Maria W. 2020. "Iodine Status and Thyroid Function in a Group of Seaweed Consumers in Norway" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3483.

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